March 17, 2018 

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A POSTERIORI: A conclusion reached through logical reasoning based on facts and observations about the real world. This notion is closely related to the scientific verification of hypotheses and the identification of principles. A similar sounding, but opposite term is a prior, which is a unverified presumption made before an analysis is undertaken. For example, in the study of economics of crime you might assume, a priori, that people are basically "good", and conclude, a posteriori, that people are more likely to commit crimes when the threat of capture and conviction is lower.

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GOVERNMENT PURCHASES: Expenditures on final goods and services (that is, gross domestic product) undertaken by the government sector. Government purchases are used to operate the government (administrative salaries, etc.) and to provide public goods (national defense, highways, etc.). Government purchases do not include other government spending for transfer payments. These are expenditures on final goods by all three levels of government: federal, state, and local governments. Government purchases are financed by a mix of taxes and borrowing.

     See also | gross domestic product | transfer payment | taxes | government borrowing | circular flow | government sector |

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The change in utility resulting from a given change in income. This is a specialized case of the general notion of marginal utility, which is simply the change in utility resulting from a given change in the consumption of a good. Marginal utility of income is key to identifying alternative risk preferences, including risk aversion, risk neutrality, and risk loving. These three risk preferences are indicated by three marginal utility of income possibilities, decreasing (risk aversion), increasing (risk loving), and constant (risk neutrality).

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time visiting every yard sale in a 30-mile radius seeking to buy either a case of blank recordable DVDs or a pair of red goulashes with shiny buckles. Be on the lookout for infected paper cuts.
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