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January 18, 2019 

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SHUTDOWN RULE, MONOPOLY: The marginal revenue and marginal cost approach to analyzing a monopoly firm's short-run production decision can be used to identify circumstances in which a firm minimizes losses by shutting down production in the short run. If the market price falls below average total cost, it must decide if the economic loss from producing the quantity of output that equates marginal revenue and marginal cost is more or less than the economic loss incurred with shutting down production in the short run (which is equal to total fixed cost).

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TRANSFER PAYMENTS: Payments made without any corresponding production or expectations of production. Unless otherwise noted (such as business transfer payments), the term transfer payments generally refers to payments by the government sector to the household sector. The three most important transfer payments in our economy are for Social Security, unemployment compensation, and welfare. The intent of these transfers payments is to redistribute income, and thus the goods and services that can be had with the income. Transfer payments surface as income received but not earned (IRBNE) added to national income to derived personal income.

     See also | government sector | gross domestic product | personal income | national income | national income and personal income | Social Security | unemployment compensation | welfare |


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ASSUMPTIONS, CLASSICAL ECONOMICS

Classical economics, especially as directed toward macroeconomics, relies on three key assumptions--flexible prices, Say's law, and saving-investment equality. Flexible prices ensure that markets adjust to equilibrium and eliminate shortages and surpluses. Say's law states that supply creates its own demand and means that enough income is generated by production to purchase the resulting production. The saving-investment equality ensures that any income leaked from consumption into saving is replaced by an equal amount of investment. Although of questionable realism, these three assumptions imply that the economy would operate at full employment.

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