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November 20, 2019 

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CHANGE IN PRIVATE INVENTORIES: The increase or decrease in the stocks of final goods, intermediate goods, raw materials, and other inputs that businesses keep on hand to use in production. Formerly termed change in business inventories, this is one of two main categories of gross private domestic investment included in the National Income and Product Accounts maintained by the Bureau of Economic Analysis. The other category is fixed investment. Change in private inventories tend to be about 3 to 5 percent of gross private domestic investment.

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VALUE-ADDED TAX: A tax on the extra value added during each stage in the production of a good. Most of the stuff our economy produces goes through several "stages," usually with different businesses. In each stage, resources do their thing to the good to make it a little more valuable. For example, an ice cream store can take 50 cents worth of ice cream, fudge, and whipped topping and turn it into a hot fudge sundae that's valued at $1.50. The efforts of the ice cream resources thus add $1 in value. A value-added tax is based on this extra value. While it's been debated off and on in the United States, a value-added tax is commonly used in Europe.

     See also | tax | production | resources | sales tax | income tax | stages of production |


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INSURANCE

A service that transfers the risk of loss from an individual to a larger group. The larger group is typically represented by an insurance provider, either a private for-profit company or a government agency. The insurance provider can assume the risk through risk pooling. Risk averse people, who are willing to pay a premium to avoid risk, are the ones most inclined to purchase insurance. The risk averse individual agrees to incur a small guaranteed loss (the premium) but avoids incurring a less likely, but much bigger, loss.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time flipping through the yellow pages hoping to buy either a how-to book on the art of negotiation or a flower arrangement for your aunt. Be on the lookout for small children selling products door-to-door.
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The first U.S. fire insurance company was established by Benjamin Franklin in 1752 in Philadelphia.
"Try first to be a man of value; success will follow. "

-- Albert Einstein, physicist

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United States Department of Agriculture
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