March 21, 2018 

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FOREIGN EXCHANGE: Any financial instrument that gives one country a claim on the currency of another country and which is used to make payments between countries. The most important type of foreign exchange is currency itself, that is, the currency of other countries. However foreign exchange also includes things like bank checks and "bills of exchange" (a sort of contract that's paid for with the currency of one nation that can be then traded for the currency of another country).

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JOB VACANCY RATE: A simple little ratio of the number of job vacancies in our economy to the sum of employment and job vacancies. In essence, this measures the fraction of jobs in the economy that are open, but haven't been filled. To be included as an officially vacant job, employers must be actively searching to fill it with a warm body, by advertising in the paper, contacting employment offices, etc. Like the more common unemployment rate, the job vacancy rate is a useful indicator of the business cycle. When the economy is booming, the job vacancy rate is likely to be relatively high. A low rate signals a recession.

     See also | employment | unemployment rate | business cycle | recession | labor market | job losers | job leavers |

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The positive slope of the aggregate expenditures line is the sum of the marginal propensity to consume (MPC), marginal propensity to invest (MPI), and marginal propensity for government purchases (MPG), less the marginal propensity to import (MPM). This slope is greater than zero but less than one, reflecting induced expenditures by the four macroeconomic sectors (household, business, government, and foreign). The slope of the aggregate expenditures line determines the magnitude of the multiplier process.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time at a going out of business sale looking to buy either a wall poster commemorating the 2000 Olympics or a flower arrangement with a lot of roses for your grandmother. Be on the lookout for broken fingernail clippers.
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The 22.6% decline in stock prices on October 19, 1987 was larger than the infamous 12.8% decline on October 29, 1929.
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