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January 18, 2018 

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TRADE BARRIERS: Restrictions, invariably by government, that prevent free trade among countries. The more popular trade restrictions are tariffs, import quotas, and assorted nontariff barriers. An occasional embargo will be even thrown into this mix. The primary use of trade barriers is to restrict imports from entering in country. By restring imports, domestic producers of the restricted goods are protected from competition and are even subsidized through higher prices. Consumers, though, get the short end of this stick with higher prices and a limited choice of goods. In that producers tend to have more political clout than consumers, it's pretty obvious why trade barriers are a "natural" state of affairs.

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MARKET-ORIENTED ECONOMY: A mixed economy that relies heavily on markets to answer the three basic questions of allocation, but with a modest amount of government involvement. While it is commonly termed capitalism, market-oriented economy is much more descriptive of how the economy is structure.

     See also | economy | mixed economy | economic system | capitalism | three questions of allocation | fifth rule of imperfection | efficiency | competitive market | market failure | economic policies | pure market economy | command economy | free enterprise |


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MARKET-ORIENTED ECONOMY, AmosWEB GLOSS*arama, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2018. [Accessed: January 18, 2018].


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CREATIVE DESTRUCTION

A fundamental process of capitalism, popularized by Joseph Schumpeter, in which the benefits of growth and prosperity induced by innovations also result in the costs of disrupting existing means of production. The creation of new activity involves the destruction of existing activity. This notion attributes business-cycle instability to innovations, including both the expansionary rise of prosperity, as well as a contractionary decline. Creative destruction is based on the idea that rather than tending toward equilibrium, the economy is largely in flux. A key question is one of cause and effect. Does innovation cause destruction or does destruction induce innovation?

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