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February 9, 2023 

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PARETO EFFICIENCY: A type of efficiency that results if one person can not be made better off without making someone else worse off. Named after Vilfredo Pareto, this criterion is the guiding theoretical notion of efficiency used in the study of economics, especially welfare economics. Pareto efficiency is generally not attained if some resources are idle or unemployed. By engaging idle resources in production, some people can have more production without reducing that available to others. A problem with Pareto efficiency, however, is that it is based on the existing distribution of income and wealth. This is one of two noted efficiency criteria used in economics. The other is Kaldor-Hicks efficiency.

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PART-TIME WORKERS: People who are willing and able to work full-time (over 35 hours per week), but are forced to work less because employers don't need their productive efforts. While part-time workers officially have jobs, and are officially included in the "employed" category when the official unemployment rate is calculated, their labor resources are really only partially unemployed. A person working 20 hours a week, who is willing and able to work 40 hours a week, really should be considered as "half employed."

     See also | unemployment | employment | unemployment rate | discouraged workers | marginally-attached workers | employed persons | unemployed persons | labor force |


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CONTRACTIONARY MONETARY POLICY

A form of monetary policy in which a decrease in the money supply and a increase in interest rates are used to correct the inflationary problems of a business-cycle expansion. In theory, contractionary monetary policy can include selling U.S. Treasury securities through open market operations, an increase in the discount rate, and an increase in reserve requirements. In theory, open market operations are the primary tool of contractionary monetary policy. Contractionary monetary policy is often supported by contractionary fiscal policy. An alternative is expansionary monetary policy.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time touring the new suburban shopping complex trying to buy either a hepa filter for your furnace or a wall poster commemorating next Thursday. Be on the lookout for vindictive digital clocks with revenge on their minds.
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Junk bonds are so called because they have a better than 50% chance of default, carrying a Standard & Poor's rating of CC or lower.
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