Google
Monday 
October 22, 2018 

AmosWEB means Economics with a Touch of Whimsy!

AmosWEBWEB*pediaGLOSS*aramaECON*worldCLASS*portalQUIZ*tasticPED GuideXtra CrediteTutorA*PLS
TAX AVOIDANCE: A legal reduction in taxes. The complexity of our system of taxes, especially income taxes, makes it extremely worthwhile to identify the mix of spending, working, and assorted activities that reduce taxes. This has also created a major industry of accountants, lawyers, educators, public speakers, and others who spend their efforts uncovering legal tax loopholes. In terms of the big efficiency picture, this is a waste of resources. Our lives would, in general, be better off if this tax avoidance industry devoted it's efforts to increasing gross domestic product rather than diverting it from one pocket to another. This, though, is not a fault of theirs, but of the tax system itself.

Visit the GLOSS*arama


VAULT CASH:

Paper bills and metal coins kept in bank vaults or elsewhere in banks (such as teller drawers). Vault cash is used, quite literally, to "cash" checks and otherwise to satisfy currency withdrawal demands of the depositors. Because vault cash is in the possession of banks and not the nonbank public, it is not considered as "money in circulation" and is not part of the official M1 money supply. Vault cash is one of two types of bank assets that are considered reserves and used to satisfy reserve requirements. The other is Federal Reserve deposits.
Vault cash is the money or currency (paper bills and metal coins) in the possession of banks. This vault cash is used as reserves to back up deposits, especially to meet any demands that customers have to withdraw cash from their accounts. Although the common notion is that banks have vaults full of cash, vault cash is generally less than one percent of a bank's total assets and perhaps only one-third of total bank reserves.

A Lot of Paper and a Little Metal

Like currency in circulation, vault cash is comprised of paper bills and metal coins. The same paper bills and metal coins that make up the currency in circulation also make up vault cash. The only difference is that vault cash is not in circulation among the consuming public.

Here is a quick once over of the paper bills and metal coins that make up vault cash.

  • Federal Reserve Notes: These are issued under the authority of the Federal Reserve System. They come in denominations of $1, $5, $10, $20, $50, and $100. A few bills carrying a $2 denomination are encountered from time to time, but they are not as widely used as the others. Denominations larger than $100 ($500, $1,000, $5,000, and $10,000) were also available once upon a time, but they too are seldom seen beyond the collections of numismatics.

  • Treasury Coins: These are issued under the authority of the U.S. Department of the Treasury. They come in denominations of one cent, five cents, ten cents, twenty-five cents, fifty cents, and one dollar. The coins were once made from pure metal (copper, nickel, and silver), with relative sizes reflecting the value of the metal content. However, pure metals gave way to less expensive metal alloys as coins made the transition from commodity money to fiat money.

Out of Circulation

Vault cash is NOT part of the M1 money supply or any of the other monetary aggregates. The reason is quite simple. M1 includes the currency that is in circulation. It is that money that can be used to make purchases or complete exchanges.

Vault cash, in contrast, is part of the economy's stock of currency that is out of circulation and stored by the banking system. Much like retail stores keep inventories of consumer goods awaiting purchase by the public, banks keep inventories of cash awaiting withdrawal by the public.

While vault cash is NOT part of the M1 money supply, it is included in what is termed high-powered money or monetary base. The monetary base includes the currency held by the nonbank public, vault cash held by banks, and Federal Reserve deposits of the banks. These are the three monetary components over which the Federal Reserve System has relatively complete control and is often used as a guide for monetary policy.

The Other Reserve

Vault cash is one of two assets that legally qualify as bank reserves and used to back up deposits. The other is Federal Reserve deposits.

Federal Reserve deposits are deposits that banks keep with the Federal Reserve System to clear checks and assist in other banking activities. The Federal Reserve System provides banks with a range of banking services, including loans and deposits. Banks are not only required to keep deposits as a means of joining the Federal Reserve System, these deposits are used to process checks through the banking system.

<= VARIABLESVERIFICATION =>


Recommended Citation:

VAULT CASH, AmosWEB Encyclonomic WEB*pedia, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2018. [Accessed: October 22, 2018].


Check Out These Related Terms...

     | bank reserves | Federal Reserve deposits | legal reserves | required reserves | excess reserves | fractional-reserve banking | full-reserve banking | no-reserve banking |


Or For A Little Background...

     | banks | banking | traditional banks | thrift institutions | money | M1 | monetary economics | government functions | financial markets | liquidity |


And For Further Study...

     | money creation | Federal Reserve System | Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation | Comptroller of the Currency | central bank | monetary policy | bank panic | monetary aggregates | barter | monetary base |


Related Websites (Will Open in New Window)...

     | Federal Reserve System |


Search Again?

Back to the WEB*pedia


APLS

WHITE GULLIBON
[What's This?]

Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time strolling around a discount warehouse buying club wanting to buy either a cross-cut paper shredder or a birthday greeting card for your father. Be on the lookout for telephone calls from long-lost relatives.
Your Complete Scope

This isn't me! What am I?

Francis Bacon (1561-1626), a champion of the scientific method, died when he caught a severe cold while attempting to preserve a chicken by filling it with snow.
"A stumble may prevent a fall. "

-- Margaret Thatcher, British prime minister

APEC
Asia-Pacific Economic Co-operation
A PEDestrian's Guide
Xtra Credit
Tell us what you think about AmosWEB. Like what you see? Have suggestions for improvements? Let us know. Click the User Feedback link.

User Feedback



| AmosWEB | WEB*pedia | GLOSS*arama | ECON*world | CLASS*portal | QUIZ*tastic | PED Guide | Xtra Credit | eTutor | A*PLS |
| About Us | Terms of Use | Privacy Statement |

Thanks for visiting AmosWEB
Copyright ©2000-2018 AmosWEB*LLC
Send comments or questions to: WebMaster