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KALDOR-HICKS IMPROVEMENT: Based on the Kaldor-Hicks efficiency criterion, the notion that an action improves efficiency if the willingness to pay of those benefiting exceed the willingness to accept of those harmed. In other words, if those gains exceed those losses, or the benefits exceed the costs, then social welfare is improved and undertaking the action provides a net benefit to society. In other words, the winners can, in principle, compensate the losers for their loss, and still come out ahead. The actual compensation, however, is required. A contrasting condition for attaining efficiency is the Pareto improvement.

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ACTUAL INVESTMENT: Investment expenditures that the business sector actual undertakes during a given time period, including both planned investment and any unplanned inventory changes. This is a critical component of Keynesian economics and the analysis of macroeconomic equilibrium, which occurs when actual investment is equal to planned investment. The difference between planned and actual investment is unplanned investment, which is inventory changes caused by a difference between aggregate expenditures and aggregate output. Should actual and planned investment differ, then aggregate expenditures are not equal to aggregate output, and the macroeconomy is not in equilibrium.

     See also | investment expenditures | business sector | Keynesian economics | macroeconomics | equilibrium | planned investment | unplanned investment | change in inventories |


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THREE-SECTOR KEYNESIAN MODEL

A Keynesian model of the macroeconomy that includes the three domestic sectors, the household sector, the business sector, and the government sector. This Keynesian model variation adds the government sector (or public sector) to the household and business sectors that make up the two-sector model. This model enables an analysis of government stabilization policies, especially how fiscal policy changes in government purchases and taxes can be used to close recessionary gaps and inflationary gaps. Equilibrium is identified as the intersection between the C + I + G line and the 45-degree line. Two related models are the two-sector Keynesian model and the four-sector Keynesian model.

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