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CLAYTON ACT: This antitrust law passed in 1914 outlawed specific practices designed to monopolize a market including price discrimination, exclusive agreements, tying contracts, mergers, and interlocking directorates. The Clayton Act was one of three major antitrust laws passed in the late 1800s and early 1900s. The other two were the Sherman Act and the Federal Trade Commission Act. The specific practices outlawed were designed to correct flaws of the Sherman Act, especially vague wording about what constituting a monopoly. Moreover, while the Sherman Act outlawed monopoly after it emerged, the Clayton Act made practices that gave rise to monopoly control illegal.

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DEADWEIGHT LOSS: A net loss in social welfare that results because the benefit generated by an action differs from the foregone opportunity cost. This is usually the combination of lost consumer surplus and lost producer surplus, and indicates of the inefficiency of a situation. Deadweight loss is commonly illustrated by a market diagram if the quantity of output produced results in a demand price that exceeds the supply price. The triangle formed by the demand curve above, supply curve below, and quantity to the left is the area of deadweight loss. If demand price equals supply price, this triangle disappears and so too does the deadweight loss. Deadweight loss can result from government actions (taxes, price controls) or from market failures (externalities, market control)

     See also | efficiency | welfare economics | demand price | supply price | inefficiency | market | tax incidence | price ceiling | price floor | externalities | market control |


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INVESTMENT LINE

A graphical depiction of the relation between investment expenditures by the business sector and the economy's aggregate level of income or production. This relation plays a key role in the study of Keynesian economics. A investment line is characterized by vertical intercept, which indicates autonomous investment, and slope, which is the marginal propensity to invest and indicates induced investment. The aggregate expenditures line used in Keynesian economics is derived by adding or stacking the investment line onto the consumption line, then adding government purchases and net exports to this stack.

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