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LONG-RUN AVERAGE COST CURVE: A curve depicting the per unit cost of producing a good or service in the long run when all inputs are variable. The long-run average cost curve (usually abbreviated LRAC) can be derived in two ways. On is to plot long-run average cost, which is, long-run total cost divided by the quantity of output produced. at different output levels. The more common method, however, is as an envelope of an infinite number of short-run average total cost curves. Such an envelope is base on identifying the point on each short-run average total cost curve that provides the lowest possible average cost for each quantity of output. The long-run average cost curve is U-shaped, reflecting economies of scale (or increasing returns to scale) when negatively-sloped and diseconomies of scale (or decreasing returns to scale) when positively sloped. The minimum point (or range) on the LRAC curve is the minimum efficient scale.

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INJECTIONS-LEAKAGES MODEL: A model used in Keynesian economics based on the equality of non-consumption expenditures (or injections) and non-consumption uses of income (leakages). On one side of the equality is saving, taxes, and imports -- the non-consumption leakages. On the other side of the equality is investment, government purchases, and exports -- the non-consumption injections. The injection-leakage model provides an alternative to the Keynesian cross for identifying equilibrium aggregate output.

     See also | Keynesian economics | injection | leakage | saving | tax | import | investment expenditures | government purchases | export | Keynesian cross | circular flow |


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MARGINAL PROPENSITY TO SAVE

The proportion of each additional dollar of household income that is used for saving. The marginal propensity to save (abbreviated MPS) is another term for the slope of the saving line and is calculated as the change in saving divided by the change in income. The MPS plays a central role in Keynesian economics. It quantifies the saving-income relation, which is the flip side of the consumption-income relation, and thus it reflects the fundamental psychological law. It is also a critical to the multiplier process. A related saving measure is the average propensity to save.

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