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June 19, 2021 

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KEYNESIAN ECONOMICS: A school of thought developed by John Maynard Keynes built on the proposition that aggregate demand is the primary source of business cycle instability, especially recessions. The basic structure of Keynesian economics was initially presented in Keynes' book The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money, published in 1936. For the next forty years, the Keynesian school dominated the economics discipline and reached a pinnacle as a guide for federal government policy in the 1960s. It fell out of favor in the 1970s and 1980s, as monetarism, neoclassical economics, supply-side economics, and rational expectations became more widely accepted, but it still has a strong following in the academic and policy-making arenas.

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PERFECT COMPETITION AND SHORT-RUN SUPPLY CURVE: A perfectly competitive firm's supply curve is that portion of its' marginal cost curve that lies above the minimum of the average variable cost curve. A perfectly competitive firm maximizes profit by producing the quantity of output that equates price and marginal cost. As such, the firm moves along it's marginal cost curve in response to alternative prices. Because the marginal cost curve is positively sloped due to the law of diminishing marginal returns, the firm's supply curve is also positively sloped.

     See also | perfect competition | supply curve | short run | law of supply | marginal cost | marginal cost curve | average variable cost | average variable cost curve | law of diminishing marginal returns | monopoly and perfect competition | perfect competition and demand | perfect competition and efficiency | perfect competition characteristics |


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AGGREGATE DEMAND CURVE

A graphical representation of the relation between aggregate expenditures on real production and the price level, holding all ceteris paribus aggregate demand determinants constant. The aggregate demand (AD) curve is one side of the graphical presentation of the aggregate market. The other side is occupied by the long-run aggregate supply curve and/or the short-run aggregate supply curve. The negative slope of the aggregate demand curve captures the inverse relation between aggregate expenditures on real production and the price level. This negative slope is attributable to the interest-rate, real-balance, and net-export effects.

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