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PARETO EFFICIENCY: A type of efficiency that results if one person can not be made better off without making someone else worse off. Named after Vilfredo Pareto, this criterion is the guiding theoretical notion of efficiency used in the study of economics, especially welfare economics. Pareto efficiency is generally not attained if some resources are idle or unemployed. By engaging idle resources in production, some people can have more production without reducing that available to others. A problem with Pareto efficiency, however, is that it is based on the existing distribution of income and wealth. This is one of two noted efficiency criteria used in economics. The other is Kaldor-Hicks efficiency.

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RECESSIONARY GAP, KEYNESIAN MODEL: The difference between equilibrium aggregate production achieved in the Keynesian model and full-employment aggregate production that occurs when equilibrium aggregate production is less than full-employment aggregate production. A recessionary gap, also termed a contractionary gap, is associated with a business-cycle contraction. The prescribed Keynesian remedy for a recessionary gap is expansionary fiscal policy. This is one of two alternative output gaps that can occur when equilibrium generates production that differs from full employment. The other is an inflationary gap.

     See also | recessionary gap | inflationary gap, Keynesian model | Keynesian model | Keynesian equilibrium | two-sector Keynesian model | three-sector Keynesian model | four-sector Keynesian model | Keynesian disequilibrium | injections-leakages model | multiplier | fiscal policy | expansionary fiscal policy | contractionary fiscal policy |


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LONG-RUN INDUSTRY SUPPLY CURVE

The relation between market price and the quantity supplied by all firms in a perfectly competitive industry after the industry has completed its long-run adjustment. The long-run industry supply curve effectively traces out a series of equilibrium prices and quantities that reflect long-run adjustments of a perfectly competitive industry to demand shocks. This long-run adjustment can take one of three paths, indicating an increasing-cost industry, a decreasing-cost industry, and a constant-cost industry.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time at the confiscated property police auction wanting to buy either a birthday gift for your uncle or a pair of red and purple designer socks. Be on the lookout for mail order catalogs with hidden messages.
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