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May 11, 2021 

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PERFECT COMPETITION AND EFFICIENCY: Perfect competition is the idealized market structure that achieves an efficient allocation of resources. The conditions of perfect competition, including (1) large number of small firms, (2) identical products sold by all firms, (3) freedom of entry into and exit out of the industry, and (4) perfect knowledge of prices and technology, ensure that perfect competition efficiently allocates resources. This is in fact the purpose of perfect competition: a market structure that illustrates perfection, the best of all possible resource allocation worlds. The real world falls short of this perfection.

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RISK PREMIUM: This has two very closely related uses. First, it's what risk averse people are willing to pay to avoid a risky situation. For example, if you would be equally happy with a guaranteed $900 or a 50-50 chance of getting either $500 or $1,500, then you're risk premium is $100. Second, it's the extra percentage points added to an interest rate to compensate for the risk of a loan. As a general rule, each 1 percent chance of default on a loan adds a risk premium of about 1 percent to the interest rate.

     See also | risk | uncertainty | income | insurance | profit | risk loving | risk neutral | risk neutral | risk pooling | entrepreneurship | hedging | financial market | interest rate | bankruptcy | profit |


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RISK PREMIUM, AmosWEB GLOSS*arama, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2021. [Accessed: May 11, 2021].


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DISEQUILIBRIUM, AGGREGATE MARKET

The state of the aggregate market in which real aggregate expenditures are NOT equal to real production, which results in an imbalance that induces a change in the price level, aggregate expenditures, and/or real production. In other words, the opposing forces of aggregate demand (the buyers) and aggregate supply (the sellers) are out of balance. At the existing price level, either the four macroeconomic sectors (household, business, government, and foreign) are unable to purchase all of the real production that they seek or producers are unable to sell all of the real production that they have.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time searching the newspaper want ads hoping to buy either storage boxes for your computer software CDs or a set of tires. Be on the lookout for fairy dust that tastes like salt.
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