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March 1, 2024 

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SOCIAL SECURITY: A system for providing financial assistance to the poor, elderly, and disabled. The social security system in the United States was established by the Social Security Act (1935) in response to the devastating problems of the Great Depression. Our current Social Security system has several parts. The first part, Old Age and Survivors Insurance (OASI) is the one the usually comes to mind when the phrase "Social Security" comes up. It provides benefits to anyone who has reached a certain age and who has paid taxes into the program while employed. It also provides benefits to qualified recipients survivors or dependents. The second part of the system is Disability Insurance (DI), which provides benefits to workers and their dependents in the case of physical disabilities that keeps them from working. The third part is Hospital Insurance (HI), more commonly termed medicare. Medicare provides two types of benefits, hospital coverage for anyone in the OASI part of the system and optional supplemental medical benefits that require a monthly insurance premium. The last part of the social security system is Public Assistance (PA), which is the official term for welfare and is covered under it's own heading.

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RISK POOLING: Combining the uncertainty of individuals into a calculable risk for large groups. For example, you may or may not contract the flu this year. However, if you're thrown in with 99,999 other people, then health-care types who spend their lives measuring the odds of an illness, can predict that 1 percent of the group, or 1,000 people, will get the flu. The uncertainty is that they probably don't know which 1,000 people, they only know the number afflicted. This little bit of information is what makes risk pooling possible. If the cost is $50 per illness, then an insurance company can insure your 100,000-member group against flu if they collect $50,000 ($50 x 1,000 sick people), or 50 cents per person. By agreeing to pay the cost of each sick person in exchange for the 50 cent payments, the insurance company has effectively pooled the risk of the group.

     See also | risk | uncertainty | income | insurance | profit | risk loving | risk neutral | risk pooling | risk premium | entrepreneurship | hedging | speculation | financial market | mutual fund |


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RISK POOLING, AmosWEB GLOSS*arama, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2024. [Accessed: March 1, 2024].


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SURVEY WEEK, CURRENT POPULATION SURVEY

The calendar week (Sunday through Saturday) containing the 19th day of the month that is used to conduct the Current Population Survey (CPS). This is the time period in which CPS interviews contact occupants of 60,000 households included in the survey. The survey questions posed by the interviewers then refer to the employment activities of the respondents during the previous calendar week, which is the termed the reference week. The activities of survey respondents during the reference week are the source of information used to estimate the unemployment rate and other employment information generated by the CPS.

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