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PERSONAL TAXES: The common term for the portion of personal income used to pay personal tax and nontax payments. Personal tax and nontax payments is the official item in the National Income and Product Accounts maintained by the Bureau of Economics Analysis measuring the personal income taxes paid to the government sector on personal income received by the household sector. Personal tax and nontax payments are subtracted from personal income (PI) to calculate disposable income (DI). Personal tax and nontax payments are about 15 percent of personal income and about 13 percent of gross domestic product.

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Lesson Contents
Unit 1: The Method
  • Overview
  • Components
  • A Process
  • Unit 1 Summary
  • Unit 2: Theory
  • Concept
  • Abstraction
  • Economic Theories
  • Unit 2 Summary
  • Unit 3: Verification
  • Overview & Data
  • Evaluation
  • Evaluation:Don't Agree
  • Unit 3 Summary
  • Unit 4: Science and Practice
  • Set Up
  • Theory
  • Verification
  • Unit 4 Summary
  • Unit 5: Cause and Effect
  • Purpose
  • An Example
  • Analysis
  • Unit 5 Summary
  • Course Home
    Economic Science

    In this lesson you'll see why and how the scientific method is a process of discovery. You'll see that it's a process of building theories to explain the workings of the world (the economy) by proposing then testing hypotheses. The five units making up this lesson will guide you through the basics of the scientific method and how it's used in the study of economics.

    • The first unit introduces the scientific method, especially its' four key components -- theories, principles, hypothesis, and data.
    • The second unit then takes a closer look at theories, including the central role played by abstraction.
    • In the third unit, we will focus on the process of verification -- how and why hypothesized relationships about the workings of the economy are compared with actual data.
    • We then turn out attention to a simple example of how the scientific method is used to test a hypothesized relation between course grades and where students are seated in a classroom.
    • The fifth and final unit in this lesson examines the role that cause and effect plays in the scientific method and economic science.

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    KINKED-DEMAND CURVE ANALYSIS

    An analysis using the kinked-demand curve to explain rigid prices often found with oligopoly. The kinked-demand curve contains two distinct segments--one for higher prices that is more elastic and one for lower prices that is less elastic. Key to this analysis is that the corresponding marginal revenue curve contains three segments--one associated with the more elastic segment, one associated with the less elastic segment, and one associated with the kink. A profit-maximizing firm can then equate marginal cost to a wide range of marginal revenue values along the vertical segment of the marginal revenue curve. This suggests that marginal cost must change significantly before an oligopolistic firm is inclined to change price.

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    Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time going from convenience store to convenience store trying to buy either storage boxes for your summer clothes or 500 feet of coaxial cable. Be on the lookout for defective microphones.
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    Junk bonds are so called because they have a better than 50% chance of default, carrying a Standard & Poor's rating of CC or lower.
    "Think not of yourself as the architect of your career but as the sculptor. Expect to have to do a lot of hard hammering and chiseling and scraping and polishing. "

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