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January 31, 2023 

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ACTUAL INVESTMENT: Investment expenditures that the business sector actual undertakes during a given time period, including both planned investment and any unplanned inventory changes. This is a critical component of Keynesian economics and the analysis of macroeconomic equilibrium, which occurs when actual investment is equal to planned investment. The difference between planned and actual investment is unplanned investment, which is inventory changes caused by a difference between aggregate expenditures and aggregate output. Should actual and planned investment differ, then aggregate expenditures are not equal to aggregate output, and the macroeconomy is not in equilibrium.

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Lesson Contents
Unit 1: Intro
  • Definition
  • Making A Monopoly
  • Real World Monopoly
  • Perfect Competition
  • Imperfect Competition
  • Unit 1 Summary
  • Unit 2: Revenue
  • Market Control
  • Monopoly Demand
  • Monopoly Revenue
  • The Numbers
  • Marginal Revenue
  • The Curves
  • Elasticity And The Curves
  • Unit 2 Summary
  • Unit 3: Output
  • Motivation
  • Total Numbers
  • Marginal Numbers
  • Total Curves
  • Profit Curve
  • Marginal Curves
  • Unit 3 Summary
  • Unit 4: Evaluation
  • Economic Profit
  • Loss Minimization
  • Efficiency
  • Short-Run Supply?
  • Unit 4 Summary
  • Unit 5: Regulation
  • Inefficiency
  • Antitrust Laws
  • Regulatory Pricing
  • Unit 5 Summary
  • Course Home
    Monopoly

    While this lesson on monopoly is not necessarily a "how to" guide for the monopolization of a market, it does provide insight into the nature and function of the monopoly market structure. We get a little insight into how a monopoly is created, and a lot of insight into what a monopoly does once it does have control of the market. Throughout this lesson, I'll me making snide comments about how inefficient monopoly is compared to more competitive markets.

    • The first unit of this lesson, One Firm, begins this lesson with a look at the nature of monopoly and how it is related to other market structures.
    • In the second unit, Revenue, we examine the revenue side of a market dominated by monopoly -- including total revenue, average revenue, and marginal revenue.
    • The third unit, Output, then looks at the profit-maximizing output production decision by a monopoly using assorted graphs and tables.
    • In the fourth unit, Evaluation, we analyze the profit-maximizing decision of monopoly in terms of profit, loss, efficiency, and short-run supply.
    • The fifth and final unit, Regulation, then closes this lesson by considering the role government plays in regulating monopoly.

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    DEPOSIT EXPANSION MULTIPLIER

    The ratio of the change in checkable deposits to the change in reserves, which indicates the magnified change in deposits resulting from a change in reserves. The deposit expansion multiplier indicates how many checkable deposits are created with an injection of additional reserves into the banking system. As the name suggests, the change in checkable deposits is typically a multiple of the initial change in reserves. The size of the deposit expansion multiplier depends on the reserve requirement ratio. The deposit expansion multiplier also forms the core of the money multiplier.

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    APLS

    BEIGE MUNDORTLE
    [What's This?]

    Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time waiting for visits from door-to-door solicitors hoping to buy either a pair of leather sandals that won't cause blisters or clothing for your kitty cats. Be on the lookout for door-to-door salesmen.
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    This isn't me! What am I?

    A half gallon milk jug holds about $50 in pennies.
    "To understand a man, you must know his memories. The same is true of a nation."

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    GLS
    Generalized Least Squares
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