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URBANIZATION ECONOMIES: A reduction in production cost the results when diverse activities are located in a concentrated urban area. Urbanization economies applied to all types of activities that benefit from assorted urban "amenities" such as public utilities, government services, information services that are inclined to experience decreasing average cost with large scale production. If, for example, a city has sufficient demand for a more efficiency, larger scale electrical generation plant, then everyone can benefit from lower electricity rates.

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Lesson Contents
Unit 1: The Method
  • Overview
  • Components
  • A Process
  • Unit 1 Summary
  • Unit 2: Theory
  • Concept
  • Abstraction
  • Economic Theories
  • Unit 2 Summary
  • Unit 3: Verification
  • Overview & Data
  • Evaluation
  • Evaluation:Don't Agree
  • Unit 3 Summary
  • Unit 4: Science and Practice
  • Set Up
  • Theory
  • Verification
  • Unit 4 Summary
  • Unit 5: Cause and Effect
  • Purpose
  • An Example
  • Analysis
  • Unit 5 Summary
  • Course Home
    Economic Science

    In this lesson you'll see why and how the scientific method is a process of discovery. You'll see that it's a process of building theories to explain the workings of the world (the economy) by proposing then testing hypotheses. The five units making up this lesson will guide you through the basics of the scientific method and how it's used in the study of economics.

    • The first unit, The Method, introduces the scientific method, especially its' four key components -- theories, principles, hypothesis, and data.
    • The second unit, Theory, then takes a closer look at theories, including the central role played by abstraction.
    • In the third unit, Verification, we focus on the process of verification -- how and why hypothesized relationships about the workings of the economy are compared with actual data.
    • We then turn out attention in the fourth unit, Science and Practice, to a simple example of how the scientific method is used to test a hypothesized relation between course grades and where students are seated in a classroom.
    • The fifth and final unit in this lesson, Cause and Effect, examines the role that cause and effect plays in the scientific method and economic science.

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    MARGINAL PHYSICAL PRODUCT

    The change in the quantity of total physical product resulting from a unit change in a variable input, keeping all other inputs unchanged. Marginal physical product, usually abbreviated MPP, is found by dividing the change in total physical product by the change in the variable input. Marginal physical product, which more often goes by the name marginal product (MP), is one of two measures derived from total physical product. The other is average physical product.

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    APLS

    BLACK DISMALAPOD
    [What's This?]

    Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time searching for a specialty store wanting to buy either a lazy Susan for you dining room table or a set of serrated steak knives, with durable plastic handles. Be on the lookout for empty parking spaces that appear to be near the entrance to a store.
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    A lump of pure gold the size of a matchbox can be flattened into a sheet the size of a tennis court!
    "To understand a man, you must know his memories. The same is true of a nation."

    -- Anthony Quayle, Actor

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    Generalized Axioms of Revealed Preference
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