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October 17, 2018 

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VOTING PARADOX: The observation that voting by a relatively small group of people might generate a intransitive or inconsistent ranking of three or more alternatives, creating a paradox of rankings. The preferences of rational individuals are generally assumed to transitive and consistent, that is, if a person prefers A to B and B to C, then the person also prefers A to C. However, the preferences of group of voters might not be consistent. That is, as a group, voters might prefer A to B and B to C, but then prefer C to A. This is not only paradoxical and confusing, it also can be inefficient.

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4-FIRM CONCENTRATION RATIO: The proportion of total output in an industry that's produced by the four largest firms in the industry. This is one of two common concentration ratios. The other is the eight-firm concentration ratio. The four-firm concentration ratio is commonly used to indicate the degree to which an industry is oligopolistic and how market control is held by the four largest firms in the industry.

     See also | concentration ratio | 8-firm concentration ratio | market share | market control | oligopoly | monopolistic competition |


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ACCOUNTING COST

An actual outlay or expenses incurred in the production of a good that shows up in a firm's accounting statements and records. Accounting cost is an explicit payment (that is, money changing hands) incurred by a firm. Accounting cost, while very important to accountants, company CEOs, shareholders, and the Internal Revenue Service, is only minimally important to economists. The reason is that economists are more interested in economic cost (also called opportunity cost), which is the value of foregone production.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time browsing through a long list of dot com websites trying to buy either a birthday gift for your grandmother or a T-shirt commemorating yesterday. Be on the lookout for defective microphones.
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Helping spur the U.S. industrial revolution, Thomas Edison patented nearly 1300 inventions, 300 of which came out of his Menlo Park "invention factory" during a four-year period.
"Do what you feel in your heart to be right for you'll be criticized anyway. You'll be damned if you do and damned if you don't. "

-- Eleanor Roosevelt, first lady

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