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January 17, 2018 

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LAFFER CURVE: The graphical inverted-U relation between tax rates and total tax collections by government. Developed by economist Arthur Laffer, the Laffer curve formed a key theoretical foundation for supply-side economics of President Reagan during the 1980s. It is based on the notion that government collects zero revenue if the tax rate is 0% and if the tax rate is 100%. At a 100% tax rate no one has the incentive to work, produce, and earn income, so there is no income to tax. As such, the optimum tax rate, in which government revenue is maximized, lies somewhere between 0% and 100%. This generates a curve shaped like and inverted U, rising from zero to a peak, then falling back to zero. If the economy is operating to the right of the peak, then government revenue can be increased by decreasing the tax rate. This was used to justify supply-side economic policies during the Reagan Administration, especially the Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981 (Kemp-Roth Act).

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COMMUNICATION: The process by which ideas, thoughts, and subsequent feedback is accomplished through encoding, sending, and decoding. In order for effective communication to occur the sender must understand the target audience and encode the message in a way that will be understood. This message is sent in various forms and can be distorted by interference prior to reaching the receiver. Receiver then interprets the message and performs required action and gives necessary feedback to the sender. Utilizing this process correctly is an integral part of the promotion element in the marketing mix.

     See also | marketing mix | perception | consumer decision making | consumer behavior | promotion |


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SHORT-RUN AGGREGATE SUPPLY CURVE

A graphical representation of the short-run relation between real production and the price level, holding all ceteris paribus aggregate supply determinants constant. The short-run aggregate supply, or SRAS, curve is one of two curves that graphical capture the supply-side of the aggregate market. The other is the long-run aggregate supply curve (LRAS). The demand-side of the aggregate market is occupied by the aggregate demand curve. The positive slope of the SRAS curve captures the direct relation between real production and the price level that exists in the short run.

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