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July 15, 2018 

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GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT AND NATIONAL INCOME: Gross domestic product (GDP) is the total market value of all final goods and services produced within the political boundaries of an economy during a given period of time, usually a year. National income (NI) is the total income earned by the citizens of the national economy resulting from their ownership of resources used in the production of final goods and services during a given period of time, usually one year. While the vast majority of domestic production is undertaken by domestic factors of production (national income is about 80% of gross domestic product) key differences do exist. The six main differences between gross domestic product and national income are (1) capital consumption adjustment, (2) indirect business taxes, (3) business transfer payments, (4) net foreign factor income, (5) government subsidies, and (6) statistical discrepancy.

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INSTITUTION: An established method or way of doing something that's widely accepted throughout society. Common institutions include marriage, markets, high school football in the fall, government, and Christmas gift-giving. Institutions provide the rules and guidelines needed to carry out the day-to-day activities of our lives. Institutions provide the crucial structure of a society and the framework within which economic activity takes place. Without institution structure, anarchy would prevail. With the rules, though, come rigidities that can prevent resources from being allocated efficiently.

     See also | market | government | allocation | resources | efficiency | union | government functions | business | corporation | private property | money |


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GOOD TYPES

The economy produces four distinct types of goods based on two key characteristics -- consumption rivalry and nonpayer excludability. Consumption rivalry arises if consumption of a good by one person prevents another from also consuming. Nonpayer excludability means potential consumers who do not pay for a good can be excluded from consuming. Private goods are rival in consumption and easily subject to the exclusion of nonpayers. Public goods are nonrival in consumption and the exclusion of nonpayers is virtually impossible. Near-public goods are nonrival in consumption and easily subject to exclusion. Common-property goods are rival in consumption and not easily subject to exclusion. Private goods can be efficiently exchanged through markets. Public, near-public and common-property goods cannot, but require some degree of government involvement for efficiency.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time at a garage sale hoping to buy either pink cotton balls or a genuine down-filled comforter. Be on the lookout for celebrities who speak directly to you through your television.
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Woodrow Wilson's portrait adorned the $100,000 bill that was removed from circulation in 1929. Woodrow Wilson was removed from circulation in 1924.
"The time to repair the roof is when the sun is shining."

-- John F. Kennedy, 35th U. S. president

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A nth-order Moving Average Process
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