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LAFFER CURVE: The graphical inverted-U relation between tax rates and total tax collections by government. Developed by economist Arthur Laffer, the Laffer curve formed a key theoretical foundation for supply-side economics of President Reagan during the 1980s. It is based on the notion that government collects zero revenue if the tax rate is 0% and if the tax rate is 100%. At a 100% tax rate no one has the incentive to work, produce, and earn income, so there is no income to tax. As such, the optimum tax rate, in which government revenue is maximized, lies somewhere between 0% and 100%. This generates a curve shaped like and inverted U, rising from zero to a peak, then falling back to zero. If the economy is operating to the right of the peak, then government revenue can be increased by decreasing the tax rate. This was used to justify supply-side economic policies during the Reagan Administration, especially the Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981 (Kemp-Roth Act).

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CORPORATION: One of the three basic forms of business organization (the other two are proprietorship and partnership). A corporation is a business established through ownership shares (termed corporate stock). A corporation is considered a distinct legal person, that can be sued, forced to pay taxes, etc., just like a human person. Unlike proprietorships and partnerships businesses, a corporation business exists separately from its owners. As such, the owners have what lawyer-types term limited liability. Owners cannot be held personally responsible for corporate debts. The owners can only lose the value of their ownership shares, but no more.

     See also | business | firm | proprietorship | partnership | limited liability | average total cost | economies of scale | factory | liability | production | unlimited liability | corporate stock | corporate bond |


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UTIL

A hypothetical unit of measurement of utility that is commonly used by economists to present hypothetical information about utility and consumer demand theory. The util measurement unit was developed as a convenient way to illustrate and discuss concepts such as total utility, marginal utility, and the law of diminishing marginal utility. However, because utility is not a measurable characteristic, the util does represent an actual unit of measurement, such as inches or pounds.

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PINK FADFLY
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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time searching for a specialty store seeking to buy either a pair of handcrafted oven mitts or a coffee table shaped like the state of Florida. Be on the lookout for fairy dust that tastes like salt.
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John Maynard Keynes was born the same year Karl Marx died.
"I have no expectation of making a hit every time I come to bat. What I seek is the highest possible batting average."

-- President Franklin Delano Roosevelt

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Moment Generating Function
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