March 21, 2018 

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AGGLOMERATION ECONOMIES: A reduction in production cost the results when related firms locate near one another. Firms can be related as competitors in the same industry, by using the same inputs, or through providing output to the same demographic group. The fashion industry, for example, experiences agglomeration economies because they can share specialized inputs (photographers, models) that would be too expensive to employ full time. Retail stores have agglomeration economies when located in shopping malls because they have access to a large group of potential customers with lower advertising cost. Agglomeration economies is given as one of the primary reasons for the emergence of urban areas.

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AVERAGE TOTAL COST: Total cost per unit of output, found by dividing total cost by the quantity of output. Average total cost, usually abbreviated ATC, can be found in two ways. Because average total cost is total cost per unit of output, it can be found by dividing total cost by the quantity of output. Alternatively, because total cost is the sum of total variable cost and total fixed cost, average total cost can be derived by summing average variable cost and average fixed cost.

     See also | total cost | quantity | average total cost curve | total variable cost | total fixed cost | average variable cost | average fixed cost |

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The relative response of one variable to changes in another variable. Elasticity is commonly used in the study of market exchanges to identify the relative response of quantity (demanded and supplied) to changes in price. The phrase "relative response" is best interpreted as the percentage change, such as, the percentage change in quantity measured against the percentage change in price. The most common notions of elasticity are the price elasticity of demand and the price elasticity of supply. Other notable economic elasticities are the income elasticity of demand and the cross elasticity of demand.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time going from convenience store to convenience store trying to buy either a set of tires or a birthday gift for your grandfather. Be on the lookout for telephone calls from former employers.
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North Carolina supplied all the domestic gold coined for currency by the U.S. Mint in Philadelphia until 1828.
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