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FACTOR DEMAND AND MARGINAL REVENUE PRODUCT: For a firm that hires the services of a factor in a perfectly competitive factor market, the factor demand curve is that portion of the marginal revenue product curve that lies below the average revenue product curve. The relation between marginal revenue product and factor demand for a perfectly competitive firm is comparable to the relation between marginal cost and short-run supply. A perfectly competitive firm maximizes profit by hiring the quantity of a factor that equates factor price and marginal revenue product. As such, the firm moves along it's marginal revenue product curve in response to alternative factor prices.

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AVERAGE VARIABLE COST: Total variable cost per unit of output, found by dividing total variable cost by the quantity of output. Average variable cost, abbreviated AVC, decreases with additional production at relatively small quantities of output, then eventually increases with relatively larger quantities of output. This pattern is illustrated by a U-shaped average variable cost curve. The logic behind this decrease-increase U-shaped pattern can be found with a closer examination of the law of diminishing marginal returns, average product, and the average-marginal rule. You should also check out marginal cost.

     See also | total variable cost | short-run production | average variable cost curve | average product | quantity | technology | resource prices | average total cost | marginal cost | average fixed cost | law of diminishing marginal returns | average-marginal rule | U-shaped cost curves | increasing marginal returns | decreasing marginal returns |


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AVERAGE VARIABLE COST, AmosWEB GLOSS*arama, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2021. [Accessed: April 13, 2021].


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VOTING PROBLEMS

Voting is a key source of government inefficiency because it can fail to provided leaders with a valid indication of society's preferences. Part of the inefficiency rests with utility-maximizing decisions of the voters, who choose rational ignorance (not to be informed) and rational abstention (not to participate), both of which lead to voter apathy and influential special interest groups. Part of the inefficiency rests with the voting process, which results in importance of the median voter, inconsistency of the voting paradox, and logrolling (vote-trading ) among voters.

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