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August 17, 2019 

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BARTER: A method of trading goods, commodities, or services, directly for one another without the use of money. In a barter exchange one good is traded directly for another. This sort of exchange ultimately requires a double coincidence of wants, meaning that each trader has what the other trader wants and wants what the other has. Without a double coincidence of wants the exchange process can become exceedingly complex, requiring a great deal of resources to complete transactions, resources that can not be used for production. In fact, inefficient barter trading was the primary reason that money was invented. With money, more resources can be used for production and fewer are needed for trading.

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AVERAGE VARIABLE COST: Total variable cost per unit of output, found by dividing total variable cost by the quantity of output. Average variable cost, abbreviated AVC, decreases with additional production at relatively small quantities of output, then eventually increases with relatively larger quantities of output. This pattern is illustrated by a U-shaped average variable cost curve. The logic behind this decrease-increase U-shaped pattern can be found with a closer examination of the law of diminishing marginal returns, average product, and the average-marginal rule. You should also check out marginal cost.

     See also | total variable cost | short-run production | average variable cost curve | average product | quantity | technology | resource prices | average total cost | marginal cost | average fixed cost | law of diminishing marginal returns | average-marginal rule | U-shaped cost curves | increasing marginal returns | decreasing marginal returns |


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OLIGOPOLY, BEHAVIOR

Oligopolistic industries share several behavioral tendencies, including: (1) interdependence, (2) rigid prices, (3) nonprice competition, (4) mergers, and (5) collusion. In other words, each oligopolistic firm keeps a close eye on the decisions made by other firms in the industry (interdependence), are reluctant to change prices (rigid prices), but instead try to attract customers from the competition using incentives other than prices (nonprice competition), and when they get tired of competing with their competitors they are inclined to cooperate formally and legally (mergers) or informally and illegally (collusion).

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time lost in your local discount super center trying to buy either a how-to book on fine dining or a coffee cup commemorating the first day of winter. Be on the lookout for malfunctioning pocket calculators.
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A scripophilist is one who collects rare stock and bond certificates, usually from extinct companies.
"The work of the individual still remains the spark that moves mankind forward. "

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