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AGGLOMERATION ECONOMIES: A reduction in production cost the results when related firms locate near one another. Firms can be related as competitors in the same industry, by using the same inputs, or through providing output to the same demographic group. The fashion industry, for example, experiences agglomeration economies because they can share specialized inputs (photographers, models) that would be too expensive to employ full time. Retail stores have agglomeration economies when located in shopping malls because they have access to a large group of potential customers with lower advertising cost. Agglomeration economies is given as one of the primary reasons for the emergence of urban areas.

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AVERAGE VARIABLE COST: Total variable cost per unit of output, found by dividing total variable cost by the quantity of output. Average variable cost, abbreviated AVC, decreases with additional production at relatively small quantities of output, then eventually increases with relatively larger quantities of output. This pattern is illustrated by a U-shaped average variable cost curve. The logic behind this decrease-increase U-shaped pattern can be found with a closer examination of the law of diminishing marginal returns, average product, and the average-marginal rule. You should also check out marginal cost.

     See also | total variable cost | short-run production | average variable cost curve | average product | quantity | technology | resource prices | average total cost | marginal cost | average fixed cost | law of diminishing marginal returns | average-marginal rule | U-shaped cost curves | increasing marginal returns | decreasing marginal returns |


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INCOME CHANGE, UTILITY ANALYSIS

A disruption of consumer equilibrium identified with utility analysis caused by changes in the buyers' income, which results in a change in the quantities of the goods consumed. The change in buyers' income alters the income constraint and forces a reevaluation of the rule of consumer equilibrium.

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