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December 7, 2022 

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HORIZONTAL MERGER: The consolidation under a single ownership of two separately-owned businesses in the same industry. An example of a horizontal merger would be two soft drink companies merging to form a single firm. A horizontal merger should be contrasted with vertical merger--two firms in different stages of the production of one good, such that the output of one business is the input of the other; and conglomerate merger--two firms in totally, completely separate industries.

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MARGINAL COST: The change in total cost (or total variable cost) resulting from a change in the quantity of output produced by a firm in the short run. Marginal cost indicates how much total cost changes for a give change in the quantity of output. Because changes in total cost are matched by changes in total variable cost in the short run (remember total fixed cost is fixed), marginal cost is the change in either total cost or total variable cost. Marginal cost, usually abbreviated MC, is found by dividing the change in total cost (or total variable cost) by the change in output.

     See also | total cost | total variable cost | marginal cost curve | quantity | law of diminishing marginal returns | technology | resource prices | increasing marginal returns | decreasing marginal returns | U-shaped cost curves | average total cost | average variable cost | average fixed cost | total cost |


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MARGINAL COST, AmosWEB GLOSS*arama, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2022. [Accessed: December 7, 2022].


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SAY'S LAW

A principle of classical economics developed the French economist Jean-Baptiste Say that is commonly summarized as "supply creates its own demand." This law, also referred to as Say's "theory of markets" or "law of markets," indicates that the act of producing aggregate output generates a sufficient amount of aggregate income to purchase all of the output produced. This principle indicated that excess production or insufficient demand for production was unlikely to occur, at least for any extended period. When combined with flexible prices and saving-investment equality, Say's law further implied that an economy would achieve and maintain full employment of resources. This law was singled out by John Maynard Keynes in his critique of classical economics, but remains relevant in current macroeconomic analysis, reflected in the circular flow model.

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