March 17, 2018 

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AGGREGATE SUPPLY SHIFTS: Changes in the aggregate supply determinants can shift either the short-run aggregate supply curve and the long-run aggregate supply curve. The mechanism is comparable to that for market supply determinants and market supply. We have two options -- an increase in aggregate supply and a decrease in aggregate supply. An increase in resource quantity or quality or a decrease in resource prices shift the aggregate supply curves to right. A decrease in resource quantity or quality or an increase in resource prices shift the aggregate supply curves to left.

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MARGINAL COST: The change in total cost (or total variable cost) resulting from a change in the quantity of output produced by a firm in the short run. Marginal cost indicates how much total cost changes for a give change in the quantity of output. Because changes in total cost are matched by changes in total variable cost in the short run (remember total fixed cost is fixed), marginal cost is the change in either total cost or total variable cost. Marginal cost, usually abbreviated MC, is found by dividing the change in total cost (or total variable cost) by the change in output.

     See also | total cost | total variable cost | marginal cost curve | quantity | law of diminishing marginal returns | technology | resource prices | increasing marginal returns | decreasing marginal returns | U-shaped cost curves | average total cost | average variable cost | average fixed cost | total cost |

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The state of resource allocation that exists when the highest level of consumer satisfaction is not achieved from available resources. This state occurs in market exchanges if the price buyers are willing and able to pay for a good does not reflect the satisfaction everyone obtains from the consuming the good or if the price sellers need to charge for a good does not reflect all opportunity cost of producing the good.

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