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April 24, 2018 

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LONG-RUN ADJUSTMENT: The combined adjustment of an industry and of each firm in the industry to an equilibrium condition that based on (1) profit maximization when all inputs are variable and (2) the entry and exit of firms. The complete adjustment is undertaken by both perfect competition and monopolistic competition. There are two parts of this adjustment process. One is the adjustment of each firm to the appropriate factory size that maximizes long-run profit. The other is the entry of firms into the industry or exit of firms out of the industry, to eliminated economic profits or economic losses. The end result of this long-run adjustment is different for the two market structures based on the fact that perfect competition has equality between price and marginal revenue, while monopolistic competition does not.

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MARGINAL COST CURVE: A curve that graphically represents the relation between marginal cost incurred by a firm in the short-run product of a good or service and the quantity of output produced. This curve is constructed to capture the relation between marginal cost and the level of output, holding other variables, like technology and resource prices, constant. The marginal cost curve is U-shaped. Marginal cost is relatively high at small quantities of output, then as production increases, declines, reaches a minimum value, then rises. This shape of the marginal cost curve is directly attributable to increasing, then decreasing marginal returns (and the law of diminishing marginal returns).

     See also | marginal cost | curve | quantity | law of diminishing marginal returns | technology | resource prices | increasing marginal returns | decreasing marginal returns | U-shaped cost curves | average total cost curve | average variable cost curve | average fixed cost curve | total cost curve |


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ASSUMPTION

An initial condition or statement of a model or theory that sets the stage for an analysis by abstracting from the real world. Assumptions are important to economic analysis. Some assumptions are used to simplify a complex analysis into more easily manageable parts. Other assumptions are used as control conditions that are subsequently changed to evaluate the consequences.

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