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July 17, 2018 

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FISCAL YEAR: The 12-month period government uses for collecting taxes, appropriating spending, and otherwise tabulating its budget. A government's fiscal year need not be identical to the standard January to December calendar year. The fiscal year used by the U.S. Federal government, for example, runs from October through September. State and local governments often have fiscal years running from July through June. For most governments, the fiscal year is self-contained spending period. The revenue appropriated to a government agency needs to be spent during the fiscal year.

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MARGINAL COST CURVE: A curve that graphically represents the relation between marginal cost incurred by a firm in the short-run product of a good or service and the quantity of output produced. This curve is constructed to capture the relation between marginal cost and the level of output, holding other variables, like technology and resource prices, constant. The marginal cost curve is U-shaped. Marginal cost is relatively high at small quantities of output, then as production increases, declines, reaches a minimum value, then rises. This shape of the marginal cost curve is directly attributable to increasing, then decreasing marginal returns (and the law of diminishing marginal returns).

     See also | marginal cost | curve | quantity | law of diminishing marginal returns | technology | resource prices | increasing marginal returns | decreasing marginal returns | U-shaped cost curves | average total cost curve | average variable cost curve | average fixed cost curve | total cost curve |


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MARGINAL COST CURVE, AmosWEB GLOSS*arama, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2018. [Accessed: July 17, 2018].


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DECREASING MARGINAL RETURNS

In the short-run production of a firm, an increase in the variable input results in a decrease in the marginal product of the variable input. Decreasing marginal returns typically surface after the first few quantities of a variable input are added to a fixed input. This is one of two types of marginal returns. The other is increasing marginal returns. A related phenomenon is diseconomies of scale associated with long-run production.

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