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AD VALOREM TARIFF: A tax on imports that is specified as a percentage of the value of the good or service being taxed. This is one form of trade barrier that's intended to restrict imports into a country. Unlike nontariff barriers and quotas, which increase prices and thus revenue received by domestic producers, an 'ad valorem tariff' generates revenue for the government. For example: a 15 percent ad valorem tariff on a TV set worth $100 would pay a tariff of $15. One advantage of an ad valorem tariff is that it keeps up with changes in prices (mostly inflation).

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U-SHAPED COST CURVES: The family of short-run cost curves consisting of average total cost, average variable cost, and marginal cost, all of which have U-shapes. They are U-shaped because each has high but falling cost at low quantities of output, which then reaches a minimum, then has rising cost at larger quantities of output. Although the average fixed cost curve is not U-shaped, it's occasionally included with the other three just for sake of completeness.

     See also | average total cost | average variable cost | marginal cost | average fixed cost | average total cost curve | average variable cost curve | marginal cost curve | average fixed cost curve | short-run production | stages of production | increasing marginal returns | decreasing marginal returns | law of diminishing marginal returns | total cost | total variable cost | total fixed cost |


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BANK PANIC

An economy-wide problem in the financial sector and the banking industry that triggers an economy-wide business-cycle contraction or even depression. Bank panics were common throughout the 1800s and early 1900s, during which time they where the primary cause of business-cycle downturns. Bank panics usually involved bank runs that spread from bank to bank throughout the economy.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time lost in your local discount super center wanting to buy either a large stuffed brown and white teddy bear or a replacement washer for your kitchen faucet. Be on the lookout for small children selling products door-to-door.
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Much of the $15 million used by the United States to finance the Louisiana Purchase from France was borrowed from European banks.
"Wherever you go, no matter what the weather, always bring your own sunshine."

-- Anthony J. D'Angelo

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