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January 17, 2018 

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AFL-CIO: The umbrella organization for many labor unions in the United States, with AFL standing for American Federation of Labor, and CIO the abbreviation of Congress of Industrial Organizations. The AFL-CIO began as just the AFL in 1886 as a collection of craft unions representing skilled workers. It expanded to include semiskilled and unskilled workers represented by industrial unions. Differing interests among the two groups lead to a division of the original AFL in 1938 into two separate groups -- the AFL containing craft unions and CIO containing industrial unions. This rift was closed in 1955, when the AFL and CIO merged to form the AFL-CIO.

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PRISONERS' DILEMMA: An application of game theory analysis in which two prisoners both confess to a crime to avoid harsher punishment when not confessing would avoid any punishment. The dilemma emerges because both prisoners are faced with the same choice -- confess or not confess -- but the outcome their choice depends on the choice made by the other prisoner. Unfortunately neither prisoner knows the choice of the other. If neither confesses, then they receive no punishment. If both confess, then they receive limited punishment, such as a year in jail. However, if one confesses and the other doesn't, the confessor receives light punishment, such as six months in jail, and the non confessor receives more severe punishment, such as five years in jail. The result is that both prisoners confess.

     See also | game theory | oligopoly | interdependence | competition among the few | collusion | advertising |


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PREFERENCES CHANGE, UTILITY ANALYSIS

A disruption of consumer equilibrium identified with utility analysis caused by changes in the preferences for a good, which likely results in a change in the quantities of the goods consumed. The change in preferences alters the marginal utility-price ratio and forces a reevaluation of the rule of consumer equilibrium.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time driving to a factory outlet seeking to buy either a 200-foot blue garden hose or a video camera with stop action features. Be on the lookout for vindictive digital clocks with revenge on their minds.
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The earliest known use of paper currency was about 1270 in China during the rule of Kubla Khan.
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