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VOTING PARADOX: The observation that voting by a relatively small group of people might generate a intransitive or inconsistent ranking of three or more alternatives, creating a paradox of rankings. The preferences of rational individuals are generally assumed to transitive and consistent, that is, if a person prefers A to B and B to C, then the person also prefers A to C. However, the preferences of group of voters might not be consistent. That is, as a group, voters might prefer A to B and B to C, but then prefer C to A. This is not only paradoxical and confusing, it also can be inefficient.

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MARGINAL COST: The change in total cost (or total variable cost) resulting from a change in the quantity of output produced by a firm in the short run. Marginal cost indicates how much total cost changes for a give change in the quantity of output. Because changes in total cost are matched by changes in total variable cost in the short run (remember total fixed cost is fixed), marginal cost is the change in either total cost or total variable cost. Marginal cost, usually abbreviated MC, is found by dividing the change in total cost (or total variable cost) by the change in output.

     See also | total cost | total variable cost | marginal cost curve | quantity | law of diminishing marginal returns | technology | resource prices | increasing marginal returns | decreasing marginal returns | U-shaped cost curves | average total cost | average variable cost | average fixed cost | total cost |


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MARGINAL COST, AmosWEB GLOSS*arama, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2021. [Accessed: May 11, 2021].


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RATIONING

The distribution or allocation of a limited commodity, usually accomplished based on a standard or criterion. The two primary methods of rationing are markets and governments. Rationing is needed due to the scarcity problem. Because wants and needs are unlimited, but resources are limited, available commodities must be rationed out to competing uses.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time flipping through mail order catalogs seeking to buy either income tax software or a how-to book on the art of negotiation. Be on the lookout for empty parking spaces that appear to be near the entrance to a store.
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