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AGGREGATE EXPENDITURES LINE: A line representing the relation between aggregate expenditures and gross domestic product used in the Keynesian cross. The aggregate expenditure line is obtained by adding investment expenditures, government purchases, and net exports to the consumption line. As such, the slope of the aggregate expenditure line is largely based on the slope of the consumption line (which is the marginal propensity to consume), with adjustments coming from the marginal propensity to invest, the marginal propensity for government purchases, and the marginal propensity to import. The intersection of the aggregate expenditures line and the 45-degree line identifies the equilibrium level of output in the Keynesian cross.

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RESERVE REQUIREMENTS: Rules by the Federal Reserve System governing the amount of bank reserves that banks must keep to back up their deposits. Legal reserve requirements came about because banks that practice fractional-reserve banking are sometimes inclined to make too many interest-paying loans and neglect to keep enough reserves on hand to pay their depositors. In principle, the Fed can alter reserve requirements to control the money supply. In practice, however, the Fed prefers to use open market operations or the discount rate.

     See also | Federal Reserve System | bank reserves | reserves | fractional-reserve banking | bank panic | money supply | open market operations | discount rate | monetary policy | Federal Open Market Committee | required reserves |


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AUTONOMOUS EXPENDITURES

Expenditures on aggregate production by the four macroeconomic sectors that do not depend on income or production (especially national income or even gross domestic product). That is, changes in income do not generate changes in these expenditures. Each of the four aggregate expenditures--consumption, investment expenditures, government purchases, and net exports--have an autonomous component. Autonomous expenditures are affected by the ceteris paribus aggregate expenditures determinants and are measured by the intercept term of the aggregate expenditures line. The alternative to autonomous expenditures are induced expenditures, expenditures which do depend on income.

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Paper money used by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts prior to the U.S. Revolutionary War, which was issued against the dictates of Britain, was designed by patriot and silversmith, Paul Revere.
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