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SLOPE, SHORT-RUN AGGREGATE SUPPLY CURVE: The short-run aggregate supply (SRAS) curve has a positive slope, reflecting the direct relation between the price level and aggregate real production. A higher price level is related to more real production and a lower price level is related to less real production. The general reason is similar to that of market supply curves--the opportunity cost of production--three specific reasons can be identified: (1) inflexible resource prices that often makes it easier to reduce aggregate real production and resource employment when the price level falls; (2) the pool of natural unemployment, consisting of frictional and structural unemployment, that can be used temporarily to increase aggregate real production when the price level rises; and (3) imbalances in the purchasing power of resource prices that can temporarily entice resource owners to produce more or less aggregate real production than the would at full employment.

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AFC: The abbreviation for average fixed cost, which is fixed cost per unit of output, found by dividing total fixed cost by the quantity of output. Average fixed cost is one of three related cost averages. The other two are average variable cost and avarage total cost. Average fixed cost decreases with larger quantities of output. Because fixed cost is FIXED and does not change with the quantity of output, a given cost is spread more thinly per unit as quantity increases. A thousand dollars of fixed cost averages out to $10 per unit if only 100 units are produced. But if 10,000 units are produced, then the average shrinks to a mere 10 cents per unit.

     See also | fixed cost | total fixed cost | average variable cost | average total cost | marginal cost | fixed input | total cost |


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EQUILIBRIUM, AGGREGATE MARKET

The state of equilibrium that exists in the aggregate market when real aggregate expenditures are equal to real production with no imbalances to induce changes in the price level or real production. The opposing forces of aggregate demand (the buyers) and aggregate supply (the sellers) exactly offset each other. At the existing price level, the four macroeconomic sectors (household, business, government, and foreign) purchase all of the real production that they seek and producers sell all of the real production that they have.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time going from convenience store to convenience store hoping to buy either a set of hubcaps or handcrafted decorations to hang on your walls. Be on the lookout for small children selling products door-to-door.
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The portion of aggregate output U.S. citizens pay in taxes (30%) is less than the other six leading industrialized nations -- Britain, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, or Japan.
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