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April 23, 2018 

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BUDGET SURPLUS: An excess of budgetary revenues over expenditures. This seemingly rare event is in fact commonly practiced by many state and local governments -- albeit often because of constitutional mandates. The federal government has even accomplished this feat once or twice. Consumers operate a budget surplus whenever they're able to put a little bit of their income into saving.

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EXCESS CAPACITY: A condition that exists when monopolistic competition achieves long-run equilibrium such that production by each firm is less than minimum efficient scale. The implication of this condition is that each firm is not producing up to its fullest capacity, as would be the case under perfect competition, and thus more firms are need to produce total market output compared to perfect competition. Excess capacity results because market control means a monopolistically competitive firm faces a negatively-sloped demand curve. Long-run equilibrium is thus achieved by the tangency of the negatively-sloped demand curve and the long-run average cost curve, which results in economies to scale.

     See also | monopolistic competition | perfect competition | minimum efficient scale | long-run average cost curve | economies of scale |


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AGGREGATE SUPPLY DECREASE, SHORT-RUN AGGREGATE MARKET

A shock to the short-run aggregate market caused by a decrease in aggregate supply, resulting in and illustrated by a leftward shift of the short-run aggregate supply curve. A decrease in aggregate supply in the short-run aggregate market results in an increase in the price level and a decrease in real production. The level of real production resulting from the shock can be greater or less than full-employment real production.

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Post WWI induced hyperinflation in German in the early 1900s raised prices by 726 million times from 1918 to 1923.
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