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July 23, 2018 

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ACCUMULATION: The process of acquiring an item and adding that item to others previously acquired. In an economic context this most often refers to the accumulation of capital, as in the phrase "capital accumulation." However, it is also used in the context of consumer durable goods, financial assets, money, wealth, and a host of other "stock" variables. When applied to capital, the process of accumulation occurs through investment.

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EXCESS CAPACITY: A condition that exists when monopolistic competition achieves long-run equilibrium such that production by each firm is less than minimum efficient scale. The implication of this condition is that each firm is not producing up to its fullest capacity, as would be the case under perfect competition, and thus more firms are need to produce total market output compared to perfect competition. Excess capacity results because market control means a monopolistically competitive firm faces a negatively-sloped demand curve. Long-run equilibrium is thus achieved by the tangency of the negatively-sloped demand curve and the long-run average cost curve, which results in economies to scale.

     See also | monopolistic competition | perfect competition | minimum efficient scale | long-run average cost curve | economies of scale |


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TAX EFFECTS

The primary reason that governments collect taxes from members of society is to finance government operations and provide public goods. However, taxes also create disincentives to engage in the taxed activity, which causes a change in the allocation of resources. This two consequences of taxes are summarized in two essential tax effects -- the revenue effect and the allocation effect. While all taxes have both, the key to effective government is minimize the allocation effect if the goal is to generate revenue and to minimize the revenue effect if the goal is to change the allocation of resources.

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Helping spur the U.S. industrial revolution, Thomas Edison patented nearly 1300 inventions, 300 of which came out of his Menlo Park "invention factory" during a four-year period.
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