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February 1, 2023 

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DEMERIT GOOD: A good that society, usually government, deems is overvalued by consumers in normal market exchanges. As such, governments typically restrict the consumption of demerit goods through policies such as taxes or direct government control. Demerit goods are often have characteristics of quasi-public goods or externality by-products. Examples include tobacco and narcotic drugs. The counter type of good is a merit good.

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PERFECT COMPETITION: An ideal market structure characterized by a large number of small firms, identical products sold by all firms, freedom of entry into and exit out of the industry, and perfect knowledge of prices and technology. This is one of four basic market structures. The other three are monopoly, oligopoly, and monopolistic competition. Perfect competition is an idealized market structure that's not observed in the real world. While unrealistic, it does provide an excellent benchmark that can be used to analyze real world market structures. In particular, perfect competition efficiently allocates resources.

     See also | market structure | firm | monopoly | oligopoly | monopolistic competition | perfect competition and demand | perfect competition and efficiency | perfect competition characteristics | perfect competition and short-run supply curve | monopoly and perfect competition |


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PERFECT COMPETITION, AmosWEB GLOSS*arama, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2023. [Accessed: February 1, 2023].


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DISEQUILIBRIUM, LONG-RUN AGGREGATE MARKET

The state of the aggregate market in which real aggregate expenditures are NOT equal to full-employment real production, which results in an imbalance that induces a change in the price level and aggregate expenditures. In other words, the opposing forces of aggregate demand (the buyers) and aggregate supply (the sellers) are out of balance. At the existing price level, either the four macroeconomic sectors (household, business, government, and foreign) are unable to purchase all of the real production that they seek or producers are unable to sell all of the full-employment real production that they have.

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