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MARGINAL UTILITY AND DEMAND: An explanation of the law of demand and the negatively-sloped demand curve can be found in the analysis of marginal utility and especially the law of diminishing marginal utility. This explanation rests on two propositions. One, the law of diminishing marginal utility means that the marginal utility obtained from consuming a good declines as the quantity consumed increases. Two, the marginal utility of a good underlies the demand price that buyers are willing and able to pay for a good. When combined, these two propositions indicate that the demand price buyers are willing and able to pay for a good declines as the quantity demanded (and consumed) increases. And this is the law of demand.

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PERFECT COMPETITION: An ideal market structure characterized by a large number of small firms, identical products sold by all firms, freedom of entry into and exit out of the industry, and perfect knowledge of prices and technology. This is one of four basic market structures. The other three are monopoly, oligopoly, and monopolistic competition. Perfect competition is an idealized market structure that's not observed in the real world. While unrealistic, it does provide an excellent benchmark that can be used to analyze real world market structures. In particular, perfect competition efficiently allocates resources.

     See also | market structure | firm | monopoly | oligopoly | monopolistic competition | perfect competition and demand | perfect competition and efficiency | perfect competition characteristics | perfect competition and short-run supply curve | monopoly and perfect competition |


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PERFECT COMPETITION, AmosWEB GLOSS*arama, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2022. [Accessed: January 24, 2022].


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TAX WEDGE

The difference between demand price and supply price that is created when a tax is imposed on a market. Placing a tax on a market disrupts what otherwise would be an equilibrium equality between demand price and supply price. A tax wedge results because the tax is included in the demand price paid by buyers but not in the supply price received by sellers. With standard demand (negative slope) and supply (positive slope) curves, the incidence of the tax (who pays) is divided between buyers and sellers.

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