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December 15, 2018 

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LAFFER CURVE: The graphical inverted-U relation between tax rates and total tax collections by government. Developed by economist Arthur Laffer, the Laffer curve formed a key theoretical foundation for supply-side economics of President Reagan during the 1980s. It is based on the notion that government collects zero revenue if the tax rate is 0% and if the tax rate is 100%. At a 100% tax rate no one has the incentive to work, produce, and earn income, so there is no income to tax. As such, the optimum tax rate, in which government revenue is maximized, lies somewhere between 0% and 100%. This generates a curve shaped like and inverted U, rising from zero to a peak, then falling back to zero. If the economy is operating to the right of the peak, then government revenue can be increased by decreasing the tax rate. This was used to justify supply-side economic policies during the Reagan Administration, especially the Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981 (Kemp-Roth Act).

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MARKET STRUCTURE: The manner in which a market is organized, based largely on the number of firms in the industry. The four basic market structure models are: perfect competition, monopoly, monopolistic competition, and oligopoly. The primary difference between each is the number of firms on the supply side of a market. Both perfect competition and monopolistic competition have a large number of relatively small firms selling output. Oligopoly has a small number of relatively large firms. And monopoly has a single firm.

     See also | market | industry | perfect competition | monopoly | monopolistic competition | oligopoly | market control | price taker | price maker |


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DERIVATION, AGGREGATE EXPENDITURES LINE

An aggregate expenditures line, a graphical depiction of the relation between aggregate expenditures and the level of aggregate income or production, can be derived by sequentially adding expenditures by the four macroeconomic sectors (household, business, government, and foreign). This derivation process begins with the consumption line, then adds investment, government purchases, and finally net exports. The process actually generates three alternative aggregate expenditures lines based on the number of sectors included (two sector, three sector, and four sector).

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time waiting for visits from door-to-door solicitors looking to buy either a desktop calendar with all federal and state holidays highlighted or a half-dozen helium filled balloons. Be on the lookout for rusty deck screws.
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There were no banks in colonial America before the U.S. Revolutionary War. Anyone seeking a loan did so from another individual.
"Our goals can only be reached through a vehicle of a plan, in which we must fervently believe, and upon which we must vigorously act. There is no other route to success. "

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