March 18, 2018 

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GRESHAM'S LAW: A principle stating that bad money drives good money out of circulation. For this law to apply an economy clearly needs two types of money, one considered good and the other considered bad. Good and bad money in this context has nothing to do with the propensity to torture small animals or attempts at world domination. Good and bad are based on the official value in exchange versus value in use. Gold and silver, which were both used as money in the U.S. Economy in the 1800s, provides an illustration. Silver took on the role of "bad money" because it was relatively less value in use than gold. As such, people used silver as everyday money and stockpiled, or hoarded, gold. The silver bad money drove the gold good money out of circulation.

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PRICE MAKER: A buyer or seller that possess sufficient market control to affect the price of the good. Price market should be compared with the alternative, price taker. From the selling side of the market, a monopoly is the best example of a price maker. As the only seller in the market, a monopoly firm has the ability to control the price. Firms operating under oligopoly and monopolistic competition are also price makers, although to a lesser degree, depending on their relative market control. From the buying side of the market, a monopsony is also a price maker. As the only buyer in the market, a monopsony firm is able to control the price. Firms operating under oligopsony and monopsonistic competition are price makers, also to a lesser degree.

     See also | price | market structure | price taker | monopoly | oligopoly | monopolistic competition | monopsony | oligopsony | monopsonistic competition | price leadership | natural monopoly | regulatory pricing | antitrust laws | monopoly and demand |

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The portion of a tax paid by each side of a market based on differences in the pre-tax equilibrium price and the after-tax demand price and supply price. Because a tax drives a wedge between demand price and supply price, the incidence or burden of a tax typically falls on both buyers and sellers. How much each side pays depends on the relative price elasticity of demand and supply. Buyers pay the entire tax only in the case of a perfectly elastic supply or perfectly inelastic demand. Sellers pay the entire tax only in the case of a perfectly elastic demand or perfectly inelastic supply.

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