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January 17, 2018 

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LONG-RUN ADJUSTMENT, PERFECT COMPETITION: The combined adjustment of a perfectly competitive industry and of each firm in the industry to an equilibrium condition that eliminates all economic profits and losses, while each firm selects a factor size that maximizes profit. This adjustment process involves two parts. One is the adjustment of each perfectly competitive firm to the appropriate factory size that maximizes long-run profit. The other is the entry of firms into the industry or exit of firms out of the industry, to eliminated economic profits or economic losses. The end result of this long-run adjustment is a multi-faceted equilibrium condition: P = AR = MR = MC = LRMC = ATC = LRAC

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MONOPOLY AND DEMAND: The demand for the output produced by a monopoly is THE market demand for the good. This should be compared with the demand facing a perfectly competitive firm. The demand curve for the output produced by a perfectly competitive firm is perfectly elastic, it is horizontal at the going market price. This is what makes a perfectly competitive firm a price taker. It must "take" whatever price is set in the overall market. Facing a downward-sloping demand curve, however, makes a monopoly a price maker. It has a great deal of control over the market and the market price. IT IS THE MARKET!

     See also | monopoly | demand | demand curve | law of demand | perfect competition | price maker | price taker | market control |


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UTILITY MEASUREMENT

A quantification of the satisfaction of wants and needs achieved through the consumption of goods and services. In principle, utility measurement can take one of two forms: (1) cardinal, which is based on numerical values (1, 2, 3, etc.) and (2) ordinal which is based on rankings (first, second, third, etc.). While the hypothetical instructional analysis of utility relies on cardinal utility, ordinal utility is a more realistic way to measure satisfaction.

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