March 19, 2018 

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INCENTIVE: A cost or benefit that motivates a decision or action by consumers, businesses, or other participants in the economy. Some incentives are explicitly created by government policies to achieve a desired end or they can just be part of the wacky world we call economics. The most noted incentive in the study of economics is that provided by prices. When prices are higher buyers have the "incentive" to buy less and sellers have the "incentive" to sell more. Price incentives play a fundamental role in the . When prices are higher buyers have the "incentive" to buy less and sellers have the "incentive" to sell more. Price incentives play a fundamental role in the allocation. When prices are higher buyers have the "incentive" to buy less and sellers have the "incentive" to sell more. Price incentives play a fundamental role in the allocation system that society uses to answer the three questions of allocation.

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MONOPOLY: A market structure characterized by a single seller of a unique product with no close substitutes. This is one of four basic market structures. The other three are perfect competition, oligopoly, and monopolistic competition. As the single seller of a unique good with no close substitutes, a monopoly firm essentially has no competition. The demand for a monopoly firm's output is THE market demand. This gives the firm extensive market control--the ability to control the price and/or quantity of the good sold--making a monopoly firm a price maker. However, while a monopoly can control the market price, it can not charge more than the maximum demand price that buyers are willing to pay.

     See also | market structure | perfect competition | oligopoly | monopolistic competition | market control | price maker | marginal cost | demand curve | market failure | monopoly characteristics | monopoly and demand | monopoly and efficiency | monopoly profit | monopoly and perfect competition | monopsony | natural monopoly | inefficiency |

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The total real output (real gross domestic product) that the economy can produce if resources are fully employed. In theory this means that the economy is operating ON the production possibilities frontier. Full employment is generally indicated by achieving what is termed the natural unemployment rate. If the economy is at full employment then actual real gross domestic product is equal to potential real gross domestic product and the actual unemployment rate is equal to the natural unemployment rate. The macroeconomy is thus living up to its potential.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time searching the newspaper want ads looking to buy either a half-dozen helium filled balloons or a packet of address labels large enough for addresses of both the sender and the recipient. Be on the lookout for vindictive digital clocks with revenge on their minds.
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The wealthy industrialist, Andrew Carnegie, was once removed from a London tram because he lacked the money needed for the fare.
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