March 23, 2018 

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SAVING: The after-tax disposable income of the household sector that is not used for consumption expenditures. In general terms, saving is the use of income to purchase legal claims through financial markets rather than the direct purchase of physical goods and services. In the macroeconomic world modeled by the circular flow, saving is the diversion of household income away from consumption and into the financial markets. In this model, saving is a primary source of funds used for business investment expenditures for capital goods. Saving is also used to finance government expenditures.

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PERFECT COMPETITION AND DEMAND: The demand curve for the output produced by a perfectly competitive firm is perfectly elastic at the going market price. The firm can sell all of the output that it wants at this price because it is a relatively small part of the market. As a price taker, the firm has no ability to charge a higher price and no reason to charge a lower one. The market price facing a perfectly competitive firm is also the firm's average revenue and, most importantly, its marginal revenue.

     See also | perfect competition | demand | perfectly elastic | price taker | market control | perfect competition and efficiency | perfect competition characteristics | perfect competition and short-run supply curve | monopoly and demand |

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Total factor cost per unit of factor input employed by a monopsony in the production of output, found by dividing total factor cost by the quantity of factor input. Average factor cost, abbreviated AFC, is generally equal to the factor price. However, using the longer term average factor cost makes it easier to see the connection to related terms, including total factor cost and marginal factor cost.

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