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March 4, 2021 

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LRAC CURVE: The common abbreviation for the long-run average cost curve, which is a curve depicting the per unit cost of producing a good or service in the long run when all inputs are variable. The long-run average cost curve can be derived in two ways. On is to plot long-run average cost, which is, long-run total cost divided by the quantity of output produced. at different output levels. The more common method, however, is as an envelope of an infinite number of short-run average total cost curves. Such an envelope is base on identifying the point on each short-run average total cost curve that provides the lowest possible average cost for each quantity of output. The long-run average cost curve is U-shaped, reflecting economies of scale (or increasing returns to scale) when negatively-sloped and diseconomies of scale (or decreasing returns to scale) when positively sloped. The minimum point (or range) on the LRAC curve is the minimum efficient scale.

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PERFECT COMPETITION AND DEMAND: The demand curve for the output produced by a perfectly competitive firm is perfectly elastic at the going market price. The firm can sell all of the output that it wants at this price because it is a relatively small part of the market. As a price taker, the firm has no ability to charge a higher price and no reason to charge a lower one. The market price facing a perfectly competitive firm is also the firm's average revenue and, most importantly, its marginal revenue.

     See also | perfect competition | demand | perfectly elastic | price taker | market control | perfect competition and efficiency | perfect competition characteristics | perfect competition and short-run supply curve | monopoly and demand |


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MARGINAL REVENUE CURVE, MONOPOLY

A curve that graphically represents the relation between the marginal revenue received by a monopoly for selling its output and the quantity of output sold. Because a monopoly is a price maker and faces a negatively-sloped demand curve, its marginal revenue curve is also negatively sloped and lies below its average revenue (and demand) curve. A monopoly maximizes profit by producing the quantity of output found at the intersection of the marginal revenue curve and marginal cost curve.

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The portion of aggregate output U.S. citizens pay in taxes (30%) is less than the other six leading industrialized nations -- Britain, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, or Japan.
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