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LONG-RUN INDUSTRY SUPPLY CURVE: The relation between market price and the quantity supplied by all firms in a perfectly competitive industry after the industry as completed its long-run adjustment. The long-run industry supply curve effectively traces out a series of equilibrium prices and quantities the reflect long-run adjustments of a perfectly competitive industry to demand shocks. This long-run adjustment can take one of three paths: increasing, decreasing, and constant. These three adjustment paths indicate an increasing-cost industry, decreasing-cost industry, and constant-cost industry, respectively.

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LONG-RUN AVERAGE COST CURVE: A curve depicting the per unit cost of producing a good or service in the long run when all inputs are variable. The long-run average cost curve (usually abbreviated LRAC) can be derived in two ways. On is to plot long-run average cost, which is, long-run total cost divided by the quantity of output produced. at different output levels. The more common method, however, is as an envelope of an infinite number of short-run average total cost curves. Such an envelope is base on identifying the point on each short-run average total cost curve that provides the lowest possible average cost for each quantity of output. The long-run average cost curve is U-shaped, reflecting economies of scale (or increasing returns to scale) when negatively-sloped and diseconomies of scale (or decreasing returns to scale) when positively sloped. The minimum point (or range) on the LRAC curve is the minimum efficient scale.

     See also | long-run average cost | average cost | average total cost | variable input | long run | quantity | economies of scale | increasing returns to scale | diseconomies of scale | decreasing returns to scale | minimum efficient scale |


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INTERCEPT, AGGREGATE EXPENDITURES LINE

The intercept of the aggregate expenditures line indicates autonomous expenditures, aggregate expenditures that do not depend on the level of income or production. This can be thought of as aggregate expenditures that the four macroeconomic sectors (household, business, government, and foreign) undertake regardless of the state of the economy. Autonomous expenditures are affected by the aggregate expenditures determinants, which cause a change in the intercept and a shift of the aggregate expenditures line.

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