March 23, 2018 

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NOMINAL GDP: The total market value, measured in current prices, of all goods and services produced within the political boundaries of an economy during a given period of time, usually one year. The key is that nominal gross domestic product is measured in current, or actual prices; the prices buyers actually pay for goods and services purchased. Nominal gross domestic product is also termed current gross domestic product.

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LONG-RUN AVERAGE COST CURVE: A curve depicting the per unit cost of producing a good or service in the long run when all inputs are variable. The long-run average cost curve (usually abbreviated LRAC) can be derived in two ways. On is to plot long-run average cost, which is, long-run total cost divided by the quantity of output produced. at different output levels. The more common method, however, is as an envelope of an infinite number of short-run average total cost curves. Such an envelope is base on identifying the point on each short-run average total cost curve that provides the lowest possible average cost for each quantity of output. The long-run average cost curve is U-shaped, reflecting economies of scale (or increasing returns to scale) when negatively-sloped and diseconomies of scale (or decreasing returns to scale) when positively sloped. The minimum point (or range) on the LRAC curve is the minimum efficient scale.

     See also | long-run average cost | average cost | average total cost | variable input | long run | quantity | economies of scale | increasing returns to scale | diseconomies of scale | decreasing returns to scale | minimum efficient scale |

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A taxation principle stating that taxes should be based on the ability to pay taxes. The ability-to-pay principle works from the proposition that those who have the greatest income should pay the most taxes. The ability-to-pay principle is the only reasonable way to finance the provision of public goods such as national defense, public health, and environmental quality. This is one of two taxation principles. The other is the benefit principle, which states taxes should be based on the benefits received.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time strolling around a discount warehouse buying club wanting to buy either a wall poster commemorating Thor Heyerdahl's Pacific crossing aboard the Kon-Tiki or decorative garden figurines. Be on the lookout for celebrities who speak directly to you through your television.
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