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September 19, 2018 

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DIAMOND-WATER PARADOX: The perplexing observation that water, which is more useful than diamonds, has a lower price. If price is related to utility, how can this occur? This paradox was first proposed by classical economists in the 19th century and was subsequently used as a stepping stone for developing the notion of marginal utility and the role it plays in the demand price of a good. The paradox is magically cleared up with an understanding of marginal utility and total utility. People are willing to pay a higher price for goods with greater marginal utility. As such, water which is plentiful has enormous total utility, but a low price because of a low marginal utility. Diamonds, however, have less total utility because they are less plentiful, but a high price because of a high marginal utility.

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DECREASING RETURNS TO SCALE: A given proportionate increase in all resources in the long run results in a proportionately smaller increase in production. Decreasing returns to scale exists if a firm increases ALL resources -- labor, capital, and other inputs -- by 10%, and output increases by less than 10%. You might want to compare increasing returns to scale and constant returns to scale.

     See also | resources | labor | capital | increasing returns to scale | constant returns to scale | diseconomies of scale | long-run average cost | output |


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DECREASING RETURNS TO SCALE, AmosWEB GLOSS*arama, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2018. [Accessed: September 19, 2018].


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AUTONOMOUS SAVING

Household saving that does not depend on income or production (especially disposable income, national income, or even gross domestic product). That is, changes in income do not generate changes in saving. Autonomous saving is best thought of as a baseline level of saving (usually negative) that the household sector undertakes in the unlikely event that income falls to zero. It is measured by the intercept term of the saving function or the saving line. The alternative to autonomous saving is induced saving, which does depend on income.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time at a garage sale seeking to buy either decorative garden figurines or a wall poster commemorating last Friday (you know why). Be on the lookout for strangers with large satchels of used undergarments.
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Potato chips were invented in 1853 by a irritated chef repeatedly seeking to appease the hard to please Cornelius Vanderbilt who demanded french fried potatoes that were thinner and crisper than normal.
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