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September 24, 2022 

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DUMPING: Selling the same good to a foreign country at a lower price, often below production cost, than that charged to the domestic buyers. Dumping usually occurs because -- (1) producers in one country are trying to stay competitive with producers in another country, (2) producers in one country are trying to eliminate the producers in another country and gain a larger share of the world market, (3) producers are trying to get rid of excess stuff that they can't sell in their own country, (4) producers can make more profit by dividing sales into domestic and foreign markets, then charging each market whatever price the buyers are willing to pay.

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DECREASING RETURNS TO SCALE: A given proportionate increase in all resources in the long run results in a proportionately smaller increase in production. Decreasing returns to scale exists if a firm increases ALL resources -- labor, capital, and other inputs -- by 10%, and output increases by less than 10%. You might want to compare increasing returns to scale and constant returns to scale.

     See also | resources | labor | capital | increasing returns to scale | constant returns to scale | diseconomies of scale | long-run average cost | output |


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DECREASING RETURNS TO SCALE, AmosWEB GLOSS*arama, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2022. [Accessed: September 24, 2022].


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TAX MULTIPLIER

A measure of the change in aggregate production caused by changes in government taxes. The tax multiplier is the negative marginal propensity to consume times one minus the slope of the aggregate expenditures line. The simple tax multiplier includes ONLY induced consumption. More complex tax multipliers include other induced components. Two related multipliers are the expenditures multiplier, which measures the change in aggregate production caused by changes in an autonomous aggregate expenditure, and the balanced-budget multiplier which measures the change in aggregate production from equal changes in both taxes and government purchases.

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