March 23, 2018 

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LONG-RUN MARGINAL COST: The change in the long-run total cost of producing a good or service resulting from a change in the quantity of output produced. Like all marginals, long-run marginal cost is the increment in the corresponding total. What's most notable about long-run marginal cost, however, is that we are operating in the long run. Unlike the short run, in which at least one input is fixed, there are no fixed inputs in the long run. As such, there is only variable cost. This means that long-run marginal cost is the result of changes in the cost of all inputs.

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INCREASING RETURNS TO SCALE: A given proportionate increase in all resources in the long run results in a proportionately greater increase in production. Increasing returns to scale exists if a firm increases ALL resources -- labor, capital, and other inputs -- by 10%, and output increases by more than 10%. You might want to compare decreasing returns to scale and constant returns to scale.

     See also | resources | labor | capital | decreasing returns to scale | constant returns to scale | economies of scale | long-run average cost | output |

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When confronted by asymmetric information, the use of small bits of information, or indicators, that suggest more comprehensive information. Signalling is used by those with more information to reduce the cost of informing those with less information. It is commonly used in markets with adverse selection. Methods of signalling include advertising, brand names, and warranties. A related method is screening.

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