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March 3, 2024 

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FISCAL YEAR: The 12-month period government uses for collecting taxes, appropriating spending, and otherwise tabulating its budget. A government's fiscal year need not be identical to the standard January to December calendar year. The fiscal year used by the U.S. Federal government, for example, runs from October through September. State and local governments often have fiscal years running from July through June. For most governments, the fiscal year is self-contained spending period. The revenue appropriated to a government agency needs to be spent during the fiscal year.

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VARIABLE INPUT: An input whose quantity can be changed in the time period under consideration. This should be immediately compared and contrasted with fixed input. The most common example of a variable input is labor. A variable input provides the extra inputs that a firm needs to expand short-run production. In contrast, a fixed input, like capital, provides the capacity constraint in production. As larger quantities of a variable input, like labor, are added to a fixed input like capital, the variable input becomes less productive. This is, by the way, the law of diminishing marginal returns.

     See also | input | output | fixed input | short-run production | law of diminishing marginal returns |


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MONOPOLISTIC COMPETITION, CHARACTERISTICS

The four key characteristics of monopolistic competition are: (1) large number of small firms, (2) similar but not identical products sold by the firms, (3) relative freedom of entry into and exit out of the industry, and (4) extensive knowledge of prices and technology.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time at the confiscated property police auction trying to buy either storage boxes for your family photos or a large, stuffed giraffe. Be on the lookout for strangers with large satchels of used undergarments.
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The 22.6% decline in stock prices on October 19, 1987 was larger than the infamous 12.8% decline on October 29, 1929.
"I think luck is the sense to recognize an opportunity and the ability to take advantage of it . The man who can smile at his breaks and grabs his chance gets on."

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