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OUTPUT: A generic term for a tangible good or an intangible service that is the end result of the production/resource transformation process. This notion of output, which also goes by the alias product, usually surfaces in the context of analyzing the short-run production of a firm. The short-run relation between a variable input and output is of particular interest because it reveals the law of diminishing marginal returns. This law indicates that additional quantities of a variable input, when added to a fixed input, have decreasing marginal products, or marginal returns.

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VARIABLE INPUT: An input whose quantity can be changed in the time period under consideration. This should be immediately compared and contrasted with fixed input. The most common example of a variable input is labor. A variable input provides the extra inputs that a firm needs to expand short-run production. In contrast, a fixed input, like capital, provides the capacity constraint in production. As larger quantities of a variable input, like labor, are added to a fixed input like capital, the variable input becomes less productive. This is, by the way, the law of diminishing marginal returns.

     See also | input | output | fixed input | short-run production | law of diminishing marginal returns |


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VARIABLE INPUT, AmosWEB GLOSS*arama, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2018. [Accessed: August 20, 2018].


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UTILITARIANISM

A philosophical view that the value or worth of an action depends on the amount of pleasure it generates or the amount of pain it prevents, or in economic terms, the amount of utility generated. Utilitarianism, although dating back to the early Greek philosophers, is largely attributable to the work of Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill. This philosophy played a major role in the development of modern consumer demand theory and utility analysis.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time at a going out of business sale trying to buy either a wall poster commemorating Thor Heyerdahl's Pacific crossing aboard the Kon-Tiki or decorative garden figurines. Be on the lookout for door-to-door salesmen.
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In the Middle Ages, pepper was used for bartering, and it was often more valuable and stable in value than gold.
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