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ZERO-BASE BUDGET: A method of budgeting expenditures in which each expenditure is justified on its overall merits rather than being based on the budget for the previous year. A zero-base budget is most often proposed (but seldom implemented) for governments. Governments generally establish budget expenditures based on expenditures for the previous year. If, for example, budget expenditures last year were $100 billion, the requested budget for this year might be set at $110 billion. The existing $100 billion is a "given" and only the extra $10 billion is justified. With a zero-base budget, the entire $110 billion is justified.

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LONG RUN: In terms of the macroeconomic analysis of the aggregate market, a period of time in which all prices, especially wages, are flexible, and have achieved their equilibrium levels. In terms of the microeconomic analysis of production and supply, a period of time in which all inputs in the production process are variable.

     See also | macroeconomics | aggregate market | long-run aggregate market | equilibrium | flexible prices | product markets | financial markets | resource markets | labor market | shortage | surplus | production | short-run production | microeconomics | supply | economies of scale | diseconomies of scale | very long run | market period | labor | capital | law of diminishing marginal returns | fixed input | variable input |


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AVERAGE FACTOR COST

Total factor cost per unit of factor input employed by a firm in the production of output, found by dividing total factor cost by the quantity of factor input. Average factor cost, abbreviated AFC, is generally equal to the factor price. However, using the longer term average factor cost makes it easier to see the connection to related terms, including total factor cost and marginal factor cost.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time at the confiscated property police auction wanting to buy either a cross-cut paper shredder or a birthday greeting card for your father. Be on the lookout for mail order catalogs with hidden messages.
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Mark Twain said "I wonder how much it would take to buy soap buble if there was only one in the world."
"Failure is the opportunity to begin again, more intelligently. "

-- Henry Ford, automobile manufacturer

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