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June 28, 2022 

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PARETO IMPROVEMENT: Based on the Pareto efficiency criterion, the notion that an action improves efficiency if it is possible for one person to benefit without anyone else being harmed. A Pareto improvement is possible if the economy has idle resources or market failures. With idle resources, more production is possible to help some without hurting others. With market failures, corrective actions can eliminate deadweight loss that can then be use for benefits economy-wide. A contrasting condition for attaining efficiency is the Kaldor-Hicks improvement.

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INJECTION: A non-consumption expenditure on gross domestic product, including investment expenditures, government purchases, and exports. Injections are combined with leakages in the injection-leakage model used to identify equilibrium aggregate output in Keynesian economics. The notion of injection is best viewed through the circular flow, in which investment expenditures, government purchases, and exports are "injected" into the main flow between output, factor payments, national income, and consumption.

     See also | injection-leakage model | leakage | investment expenditures | government purchases | export | injection line | leakage line | Keynesian equilibrium | aggregate output |


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ORDINAL UTILITY

The notion that utility--the satisfaction of wants and needs achieved through the consumption of goods and services--is measured by a ranking of preferences (first, second, third, etc.) that are only comparable on a relative basis. Ordinal utility does not presume that satisfaction is a measurable characteristic of a person, like height or weight, that can be compared against an established benchmark. The contrasting notion is cardinal utility, which is based on a numerical standard.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time strolling around a discount warehouse buying club trying to buy either a coffee cup commemorating last Friday (you know why) or a wall poster commemorating the first day of spring. Be on the lookout for rusty deck screws.
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This isn't me! What am I?

Lewis Carroll, the author of Alice in Wonderland, was the pseudonym of Charles Dodgson, an accomplished mathematician and economist.
"I do not believe in a fate that will fall on us no matter what we do. I do believe in a fate that will fall on us if we do nothing. "

-- Ronald Reagan, 40th US president

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