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September 22, 2018 

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VOLUNTARY EXCHANGE: The process of willingly trading one item for another. The emphasis here is on "willingly." Voluntary exchanges are the heart and soul of market transactions, and should be contrasted with the "involuntary" exchanges mandated by government taxes, laws, and regulations. While involuntary government-forced exchanges play an important role in a mixed economy, economists really, really like voluntary market exchanges because they promote economic efficiency.

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INJECTION LINE: A line used in the injection-leakage model representing the relation between non-consumption expenditures (that is, injections) and national income. The three injections are investment expenditures, government purchases, and exports. The foundation of the injection line is the investment line, which is then enhanced by adding government purchases and exports. The other part of the injection-leakage model is a line representing leakages. The intersection of the injection and leakage lines identifies equilibrium aggregate output, or Keynesian equilibrium.

     See also | injection | injection-leakage model | leakage | investment expenditures | government purchases | export | investment line | leakage line | Keynesian equilibrium | aggregate output |


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MARKET SUPPLY

The combined supply of everyone willing and able to sell a good in a market. Market supply is one half of the market. The other is market demand. It is graphically represented by a positively-sloped market supply curve, which can be derived by combining, or adding, the individual supplies of every seller in the market.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time at a garage sale trying to buy either a velvet painting of Elvis Presley or a wall poster commemorating yesterday. Be on the lookout for infected paper cuts.
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The penny is the only coin minted by the U.S. government in which the "face" on the head looks to the right. All others face left.
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