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April 26, 2018 

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AFC: The abbreviation for average fixed cost, which is fixed cost per unit of output, found by dividing total fixed cost by the quantity of output. Average fixed cost is one of three related cost averages. The other two are average variable cost and avarage total cost. Average fixed cost decreases with larger quantities of output. Because fixed cost is FIXED and does not change with the quantity of output, a given cost is spread more thinly per unit as quantity increases. A thousand dollars of fixed cost averages out to $10 per unit if only 100 units are produced. But if 10,000 units are produced, then the average shrinks to a mere 10 cents per unit.

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LOGROLLING: A systematic exchange of votes by politicians to obtain approval of specific legislation. That is, Senator Grapht agrees to vote for Senator Brybe's pet project if Senator Brybe votes for Senator Grapht's favorite piece of legislation. Such logrolling can be explicit or implicit. The explicit kind involves two separate bills, in which each politician is forced to "go on record" with a vote. The implicit kind, which many politicians favor, is where several separate programs are wrapped into a single bill. Every politician can then tell the folks back home that they really only wanted the "one thing" that helped their constituencies the most, but had to vote for "other things" as well. Logrolling is big reason our government is big and prone to inefficiency.

     See also | public choice | principal-agent problem | efficiency | fifth rule of imperfection |


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LOGROLLING, AmosWEB GLOSS*arama, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2018. [Accessed: April 26, 2018].


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ELASTICITY ALTERNATIVES, SUPPLY

Five categories of the price elasticity of supply that reflect the entire range of the relative responsiveness of a change in quantity supplied to a change in price. These five alternatives--perfectly elastic, relatively elastic, unit elastic, relatively inelastic, and perfectly inelastic--are often illustrated by different supply curves. The price elasticity of demand is also reflected by five comparable alternatives.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time surfing the Internet trying to buy either a computer that can play video games and burn DVDs or a black duffle bag with velcro closures. Be on the lookout for rusty deck screws.
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A thousand years before metal coins were developed, clay tablet "checks" were used as money by the Babylonians.
"Sometimes when you innovate, you make mistakes. It is best to admit them quickly and get on with improving your other innovations. "

-- Steve Jobs, Apple Computer founder

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