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April 21, 2018 

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EIGHT-FIRM CONCENTRATION RATIO: The proportion of total output in an industry that's produced by the eight largest firms in the industry. This is one of two common concentration ratios. The other is the four-firm concentration ratio. The eight-firm concentration ratio is commonly used to indicate the degree to which an industry is oligopolistic and how market control is held by the eight largest firms in the industry.

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ORDINAL: A measurement based on a ranking, such as first, second, and third, that enables a relative comparison of more or less. Relative comparability means, for example, that first is more than second and second is more than third, but how much more is not known. Cardinal measures, which use a quantitative measurement scale, is an alternative type of measure. An ordinal measure can be thought of as a list for high to low, good to bad, top to bottom, and are often based on subjective evaluations of items. The notion of ordinal measurement is most often seen in the economic analysis of indifference curves and utility.

     See also | ordinal utility | cardinal | cardinal utility | utility | satisfaction | indifference curve | quality of life | second rule of subjectivity |


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SCREENING

When confronted by asymmetric information, the use of small bits of information, or indicators, that suggest more comprehensive information. Screening occurs when those with limited information try to identify indicators suggesting more complete information. It is used in markets with adverse selection and moral hazard, especially in labor markets and in the provision of insurance. Common methods of screening include aptitude tests, affiliations, past behavior, and personal characteristics. A related method is signalling.

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