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June 23, 2018 

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KALDOR-HICKS IMPROVEMENT: Based on the Kaldor-Hicks efficiency criterion, the notion that an action improves efficiency if the willingness to pay of those benefiting exceed the willingness to accept of those harmed. In other words, if those gains exceed those losses, or the benefits exceed the costs, then social welfare is improved and undertaking the action provides a net benefit to society. In other words, the winners can, in principle, compensate the losers for their loss, and still come out ahead. The actual compensation, however, is required. A contrasting condition for attaining efficiency is the Pareto improvement.

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PUBLIC UTILITY: The common term for a firm that provides and important (what some deem as essential) good or service primarily in and urban area and often through the use of an extensive distribution network. Common examples of public utilities are those that produce, provide, and/or distribute electricity, natural gas, local telephone services, cable television services, water, garbage collection, and sewage processing. A key feature is that capital requirements mean that public utilities tend to be natural monopolies. One firm can generally provide the services at a lower average cost that two or more firms. For this reason, public utilities tend to be either government owned and operated or heavily regulated by government.

     See also | natural monopoly | monopoly | average-cost pricing | marginal-cost pricing | regulation |


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POLITICAL ENTREPRENEURS

Election seeking politicians who undertake risks inherent in the allocation of resources made through government actions. Like business entrepreneurs, political entrepreneurs take risks and organize production. They organize production with government laws, regulations, and policies. They run the risk of failed policies and losing elections. Their utility-maximizing actions are also a prime source of government failure. Falling victim to the principal-agent problem, pursuit of their own satisfaction (winning elections) often conflicts with what is best for the rest of society.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time wandering around the downtown area looking to buy either a 50 foot extension cord or a combination CD player, clock radio, and telephone (with answering machine). Be on the lookout for high interest rates.
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The penny is the only coin minted by the U.S. government in which the "face" on the head looks to the right. All others face left.
"The majority of men meet with failure because of their lack of persistence in creating new plans to take the place of those that fail. "

-- Napoleon Hill, author

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