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January 16, 2018 

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VOLUNTARY EXCHANGE: The process of willingly trading one item for another. The emphasis here is on "willingly." Voluntary exchanges are the heart and soul of market transactions, and should be contrasted with the "involuntary" exchanges mandated by government taxes, laws, and regulations. While involuntary government-forced exchanges play an important role in a mixed economy, economists really, really like voluntary market exchanges because they promote economic efficiency.

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MARGINAL-COST PRICING: A pricing scheme in which the price received by a firm is set equal to the marginal cost of production. This is not only the efficient outcome achieved by competitive markets, it is commonly used for comparison of other regulatory policies, such as average-cost pricing, that are used for public utilities (especially those that are natural monopolies). The bad thing about marginal-cost pricing for natural monopolies is that a normal profit is not guaranteed. The good thing about marginal-cost pricing is that marginal cost is equal to price, and the public utility is operating according to the price equals marginal cost (P = MC) rule of efficiency.

     See also | regulatory policy | public utility | natural monopoly | firm | price | average total cost | normal profit | efficiency | average-cost pricing |


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AVERAGE REVENUE, PERFECT COMPETITION

The revenue received for selling a good per unit of output sold, found by dividing total revenue by the quantity of output. Average revenue often goes by a simpler and more widely used term... price. For a perfectly competitive firm average revenue is also equal to marginal revenue. Average revenue for a perfectly competitive firm is often depicted by a horizontal average revenue curve.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time watching the shopping channel looking to buy either a desktop calendar with all federal and state holidays highlighted or a half-dozen helium filled balloons. Be on the lookout for mail order catalogs with hidden messages.
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There were no banks in colonial America before the U.S. Revolutionary War. Anyone seeking a loan did so from another individual.
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