March 17, 2018 

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HERFINDAHL-HIRSHMAN INDEX: A measure of concentration of the production in an industry that's calculated as the sum of the squares of market shares for each firm. This is an alternative method of summarizing the degree to which an industry is oligopolistic and the relative concentration of market power held by the largest firms in the industry. The Herfindahl index gives a better indication of the relative market control of the largest firms than can be found with the four-firm and eight-firm concentration ratios.

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TARIFFS: Taxes that are usually on imports, but occasionally (very rarely) on exports. This is one form of trade barrier that's intended to restrict imports into a country. Unlike nontariff barriers and quotas which increase prices and thus revenue received by domestic producers, a tariff generates revenue for the government. Most pointy-headed economists who spend their waking hours pondering the plight of foreign trade contend that the best way to restrict trade, if that's what you want to do, is through a tariff.

     See also | trade barrier | tax | import | export | nontariff barrier | quota | foreign trade |

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The notion that utility--the satisfaction of wants and needs achieved through the consumption of goods and services--is measured by a ranking of preferences (first, second, third, etc.) that are only comparable on a relative basis. Ordinal utility does not presume that satisfaction is a measurable characteristic of a person, like height or weight, that can be compared against an established benchmark. The contrasting notion is cardinal utility, which is based on a numerical standard.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time visiting every yard sale in a 30-mile radius seeking to buy either a case of blank recordable DVDs or a pair of red goulashes with shiny buckles. Be on the lookout for infected paper cuts.
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Before 1933, the U.S. dime was legal as payment only in transactions of $10 or less.
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