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May 22, 2024 

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ANNUITY: The receipt of payments at regular intervals from a established fund. Annuities are commonly used for insurance and retirement programs. It works in this way: A fund, which can be established either through a one-time sum of money or a series of payments, is exhausted over time with fixed, periodic payments. The amount of each payment depends on the interest accrued on the outstanding balance in the fund, and the length of time scheduled to exhaust the fund. For example, if your pension plan is based on an annuity that begins payments at the age of 65, then the size of the payments depends on whether you expect to live 5, 10, 15, or more years and set up payments accordingly. It's very similar to amortization, but in the reverse direction.

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QUOTA: A limit on the quantity of some sort of activity. Two of the more noted quotas are for employment and imports. Employment quotas have been used as a means of providing increased opportunities to blacks, hispanics, women, and other groups that have been historically subject to discrimination. Such quotas, however, tend to anger other groups, especially white males, who don't get favorable treatment. While employment or similar anti-discrimination quota systems might help address historical problems, they are not without cost. In particular, our economy's efficiency is likely to suffer if a less qualified member of an ethnic group is selected over someone who is more qualified. Import quotas have similar problems. They are one form of trade barriers that's usually intended to reduce the competition faced by a domestic producer.

     See also | employment | import | discrimination | opportunity cost | efficiency | nontariff barrier | competition | market control | price |


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INVESTMENT BORROWING

The acquisition of funds through the financial markets by the business sector which are used to finance investment expenditures on capital goods. In terms of the simple circular flow model, this is one of two basic demands for household saving diverted into financial markets. The other is government borrowing.

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Junk bonds are so called because they have a better than 50% chance of default, carrying a Standard & Poor's rating of CC or lower.
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